Ganoderma Lucidum
Several of the key compounds in reishi mushroom have been studied for their potential to enhance overal health and increase life expectancy. These benefits are thought to arise partly from reishi’s role as an antioxidant. Also, reishi may boost endurance and oxygenation of cel s.
Reishi has also been researched for its possible ability to inhibit cancerous tumor growth, especial y when caused by exposure to radiation. Reishi could have immuno-stimulating effects in patients with advanced-stage cancer. One study in mice reported tumor inhibition rates of 90 percent and tumor regression 75 percent of the time.
Other research has suggested that reishi may help treat diabetes, type 2. Results in diabetic test subjects have been comparable to those produced by conventional insulin therapies.
In addition to supporting overal cardiovascular health, reishi may offer benefits to people with high blood pressure. Studies suggest a lowering of systolic and diastolic blood pressure is possible when reishi is administered.
Final y, reishi has been used to treat herpes and a number of complications that arise from the infection. What’s more, some studies point to evidence that reishi may help the body fight HIV infection.
General Precautions

This dietary supplement is considered safe when used in accordance with proper dosing guidelines.
If you are planning to have any type of surgery or dental work, stop using this dietary supplement for
at least 14 days prior to the procedure.

Some individuals experience an al ergic reaction when taking this dietary supplement. Cal your
doctor or seek medical attention if you have fast or irregular breathing, skin rash, hives or itching.

Health Conditions
If you have a bleeding disorder talk to your doctor before taking this dietary supplement.
Side Effects
Side effects are possible with any dietary supplement. This dietary supplement may cause dryness
of the mouth, throat and nasal areas, stomach upset, and loose stools. Tel your doctor if these side
effects become severe or do not go away.

To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects related to fetal development
during pregnancy or to infants who are breast-fed. Yet little is known about the use of this dietary
supplement while pregnant or breast-feeding. Therefore, it is recommended that you inform your
healthcare practitioner of any dietary supplements you are using while pregnant or breast-feeding.

Age Limitations
To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects specifical y related to the use of
this dietary supplement in children. Since young children may have undiagnosed al ergies or medical
conditions, this dietary supplement should not be used in children under 10 years of age unless
recommended by a physician.
Studies and Research
The following information has been sourced and re-produced from independent studies and
researches and publications, in an effort to provide information for medical professionals.

Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi) in Cancer Treatment
Daniel Sliva, PhD Cancer Research Laboratory, Methodist Research Institute, 1800 N Capitol Ave, E504, Indianapolis, IN 46202.d-silva{at}clarian.org The popular edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum(Reishi) has been widely used for the general promotion of health and longevity in Asian countries. The dried powder of Ganoderma lucidumwas popular as a cancer chemotherapy agent in ancient China. The authors recently demonstrated thatGanoderma luciduminhibits constitutively active transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-.B) and AP-1, which resulted in the inhibition of expression of urokinasetype plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor uPAR.Ganoderma lucidumalso suppressed cel adhesion and cel migration of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cel s, suggesting its potency to reduce tumor invasiveness. Thus, Ganoderma lucidumclearly demonstrates anticancer activity in experiments with cancer cel s and has possible therapeutic potential as a dietary supplement for an alternative therapy for breast and prostate cancer. However, because of the availability of Ganoderma lucidum from different sources, it is advisable to test its biologic activity. Integrative Cancer Therapies, Vol. 2, No. 4, 358-364 (2003)DOI: 10.1177/1534735403259066 2003 SAGE Publications Effects of ganoderma lucidum extract on chemotherapy-
induced nausea and vomiting in a rat model.

Wang CZ, Basila D, Aung HH, Mehendale SR, Chang WT, McEntee E, Guan X, Yuan CS.
Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
Chemotherapy is highly cytotoxic, causing a number of severe adverse effects such as nausea and vomiting. Herbal medicines, which can often be used on a daily basis for prolonged treatment, may be clinical y beneficial. Ganoderma lucidum or Lingzhi mushroom has been recognized as a remedy in treating a number of medical conditions, including balancing immunity and decreasing drug-induced side effects. It has been shown that rats react to emetic stimuli, like the chemotherapy agent cisplatin, by increased consumption of kaolin, known as pica; and this rat model has been utilized to evaluate novel anti-emetic compounds. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a G. lucidum extract (SunRecome, the most commonly used Lingzhi mushroom extract in China) in attenuating cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting in the rat pica model. We observed that intraperitoneal cisplatin injection caused a significant increase in kaolin intake at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, reflecting cisplatin's nausea and vomiting action. This cisplatin-induced kaolin intake dose-dependently decreased after 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg G. lucidum extract injection (p < 0.01). In addition, there was a significant reduction of food intake after cisplatin. The cisplatin-induced food intake reduction improved significantly after G. lucidum extract administrations in a dose-related manner (p < 0.01), suggesting a supportive effect of the extract on general body condition. Future control ed clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this herbal medication.
The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by
cytokines released from activated macrophages and T

Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, Tzeng CH, Lee SS, Shiao MS, Ho CK.
Department of Medical Research, Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
The present study was to ascertain the immunomodulating and anti-tumor effects of Ganoderma (G.) lucidum. Polysaccharides (PS) from fresh fruiting bodies of G. lucidum (PS-G) were isolated and used to potentiate cytokine production by human monocytes-macrophages and T lymphocytes. Our results had shown that the levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha, and IL-6 in macrophage cultures treated with PS-G (100 micrograms/ml) were 5.1-, 9.8- and 29-fold higher, respectively, than those of untreated controls. In addition, the release of interferon (IFN)- gamma from T lymphocytes was also greatly promoted in the presence of PS-G (25-100 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, these cytokine-containing mononuclear cel -conditioned media (PSG-MNC-CM) were found to suppress the proliferation and clonogenicity of both the HL-60 and the U937 leukemic cel lines. DNA labeling and gel electrophoresis showed that treatment with PSG-MNC-CM markedly induced leukemic-cel apoptosis. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that few (2.3 +/- 0.8%) apoptotic cel s were seen in the control cultures, while PSG-MNC-CM treatment resulted in a significant increase in the apoptotic population both in the HL-60 (38.3 +/- 4.5%) and in the U937 (44.5 +/- 3.8%) cel s. In addition, 40 to 45% of the treated leukemic cel s were triggered to differentiate into mature monocytic cel s expressing CD14 and CD68 surface antigens. However, PS-G alone had no such effects even at a higher dose of 400 micrograms/ml. Since untreated macrophages and T lymphocytes produced little or no cytokine, and normal MNC-CM did not suppress leukemic cel growth, it was suggestive that the anti-tumor activity of PSG-MNC-CM was derived from the elevated levels of cytokines. Antibody-neutralization studies further revealed that the anti-tumor cytokines in the PSG-MNC-CM were mainly of TNF- alpha and IFN- gamma, and these 2 cytokines acted synergistical y on the inhibition of leukemic-cel growth.
Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in
vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

A Berger,1,2 D Rein,1,3 E Kratky,1 I Monnard,1 H Haj aj,1,4 I Meirim,1 C Piguet-Welsch,1 J Hauser,1,5 K Mace,1 and P Niederberger1 1Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne 26, 1000, Switzerland2Paradigm Genetics, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-4528, USA3BASF Plant Science Holding GmbH, Agricultural Center, BPH-Li 555, Limburgerhof, 67114, Germany4Univerity des Sciences et de Technologie de Lil e, B.P. 179, Vil eneuve d'Ascq Cedex, 59653, France5University of Lausanne, Institut de Biologie Cel ulaire et de Morphologie, 1015, Lausanne, SwitzerlandCorresponding author.
A Berger: aberger/at/paragen.com ; D Rein: dietrich.rein/at/basf-ag.de ; E Kratky: elenanm/at/earthlink.com ; I Monnard: irina.monnard/at/rdls.nestle.com ; H Haj aj: H_haj aj/at/yahoo.com ; I Meirim: Isabel e.Meirim/at/rdls.nestle.com ; C Piguet-Welsch: Cristal.Piguet-Welsch/at/rdls.nestle.com ; J Hauser: jonas.hauser/at/ibcm.unil.ch ; K Mace: catherine.mace/at/rdls.nestle.com ; P Niederberger: peter.niederberger/at/rdls.nestle.com Received January 22, 2004; Accepted February 18, 2004.
Int J Cancer. 1997 Mar 17;70(6):699-705.
Lipids Health Dis. 2004; 3: 2. Published online 2004 February 18. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-3-2.
Copyright 2004 Berger et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in al media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.
Conclusions and key findings
In summary, GI was found to have cholesterol lowering potential in vitro, ex-vitro, and in two animal models, with some differences between the two animal models. It is possible that oxygenated lanosterol derivatives in Gl (partly characterized in the present work) contributed to this cholesterol lowering by decreasing cholesterol synthesis (changes in in vitro and ex-vivo, but not whole body, cholesterol synthesis were apparent in the present work). Fibrous components and glucans in Gl were likely responsible for the observed alterations in fecal neutral sterols and bile acids in both animal species, ultimately affecting cholesterol absorption and bile acid recycling and contributing to cholesterol lowering. Next steps are to examine the cholesterol lowering properties of various doses of intact and fractionated, chemical y characterized, Gl components in a placebo-control ed clinical trial. Animal experimentation should also utilize fractionated materials, and ideal y, elucidate mechanisms of action of each bioactive component. Positive cholesterol-lowering results in such studies will pave the way for adding Gl to new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines, alone, and in combination with other established cholesterol-lowering ingredients and drugs.
In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides
(Aloe barbadensis Miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma
lucidum and Coriolus versicolor)

Hyung Sik Kim, Sam Kacew1 and Byung Mu Lee2 Division of Toxicology, Col ege of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Changan-ku, Chunchun-dong, Kyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746, Korea and 1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)–DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides [Aloe barbadensis Mil er (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)] were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initiation and promotion processes in carcinogenesis. In B[a]P–DNA adduct formation, APS (180 µg/ml) was the most effective in inhibition of B[a]P binding to DNA in mouse liver cel s. Oxidative DNA damage (by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) was significantly decreased by APS (180 µg/ml) and CPS (180 µg/ml). In induction of glutathione S-transferase activity, GPS was found to be the most effective among plant polysaccharides. In screening anti-tumor promoting effects, APS (180 µg/ml) significantly inhibited phorbol myristic acetate (PMA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in Balb/3T3 cel s. In addition, APS significantly inhibited PMA-induced tyrosine kinase activity in human leukemic cel s. APS and CPS significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation. These results suggest that some plant polysaccharides produced both anti-genotoxic and anti-tumor promoting activities in in vitro models and, therefore, might be considered as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention. Abbreviations: 8-OH-dG, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; APS, Aloe barbadensis Mil er polysaccharide; CPS, Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide; GPS, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide; GST, glutathione S-transferase; LPS, Lentinus edodes polysaccharide; ODC, ornithine decarboxylase; PMA, phorbol myristic acetate; TK, tyrosine kinase. 2 To whom correspondence should be addressed Email: bmlee{at}yurim.skku.ac.kr Polysaccharide Purified from Ganoderma lucidum Induces
Gene Expression Changes in Human Dendritic Cells and
Promotes T Helper 1 Immune Response in BALB/c Mice

Yu-Li Lin, Shiuh-Sheng Lee, Shin-Miao Hou, and Bor-Luen Chiang Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Col ege of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (Y.-L.L., S.-M.H., B.-L.C.); and Department of Biochemistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (S.-S.L.) Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom in China and other Asian countries. The polysaccharide from G. lucidum (PS-G) is a branched (16)--D-glucan moiety. In this study, we examined the effects of PS-G on human monocyte-derived dendritic cel s (DCs) with microarray analysis by Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip. In comparing mean signal values between PS-G-treated DCs with untreated DCs, 3477 (17%) probe sets were up-regulated, and 4418 (19%) probe sets were down-regulated after PS-G treatment. These results demonstrate that genes associated with phagocytosis (CD36, CD206, and CD209) are decreased and genes associated with proinflammatory chemokines (CCL20, CCL5, and CCL19), cytokines [interleukin (IL)-27, IL-23A, IL-12A, and IL-12B], and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD54, CD80, and CD86) are increased. To confirm the microarray data, we further investigated the effect of PS-G on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Immunization with ovalbumin (OVA)/PS-G showed that the anti-OVA IgG2a levels were significantly increased compared with OVA alone in BALB/c mice. Together, our data demonstrate that PS-G could effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature DCs, preferring a T helper 1 response. Furthermore, the results also demonstrate that the data from microarray analysis could be correlated with the in vivo effect of the immune-enhancing compound. Further references:
1. Borchers AT, Stern JS, Hackman RM, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;221:281–293. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1373.1999.d01-86.x. 2. Kabir Y, Kimura S, Tamura T. Dietary effect of Ganoderma lucidum mushroom on blood pressure and lipid levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1988;34:433–438. 3. Li Khva, Ren.;Vasil'ev, AV.;Orekhov, AN.;Tertov, VV.; Tutel'ian, VA. [Anti-atherosclerotic properties of higher mushrooms (a clinico-experimental investigation)]. Vopr Pitan. 1989. pp. 16–19. 4. Opletal L, Jahodar L, Chobot V, Zdansky P, Lukes J, Bratova M, Solichova D, Blunden G, Dacke CG, Patel AV. Evidence for the anti-hyperlipidaemic activity of the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Br J Biomed Sci. 1997;54:240–243. 5. Bobek P, Ozdin L, Galbavy S. Dose- and time-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats. Nutrition. 1998;14:282–286. doi: 10.1016/S0899-9007(97)00471-1. 6. Bobek P, Galbavy S. Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rabbits. Nahrung. 1999;43:339–342. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-3803(19991001)43:5<339::AID-FOOD339>3.3.CO;2-X. 7. Cheung PC, Lee MY. Fractionation and characterization of mushroom dietary fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides) as potential nutraceuticals from sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) singer. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:3148–3151. doi: 10.1021/jf000382s. 8. Gunde-Cimerman N, Plemenitas A. Hypocholesterolemic activity of the genus Pleurotus (Fr.) Karst. (Agaricales s.l., Basidiomycetes). Int J Medicinal Mushrooms. 2001;3:A91. 9. Cheung PC. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and fecal neutral sterol excretion are altered in hamsters fed straw mushroom diets. J Nutr. 1998;128:1512–1516. 10. Fukushima M, Nakano M, Mori Y, Ohashi T, Fujiwara Y, Sonoyama K. Hepatic LDL receptor mRNA in rats is increased by dietary mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) fiber and sugar beet fiber. J Nutr. 2000;130:2151–2156. 11. Beynen AC, Fielmich AM, Lemmens AG, Terpstra AH. Farm-grown mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in the diet of rats do not affect plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Nahrung. 1996;40:343–345. 12. Cheung PCK. The hypocholesterolemic effect of extracel ular polysaccharide from the submerged fermentation of mushroom. Nutr Res. 1996;16:1953–1957. doi: 10.1016/S0271-5317(96)00218-7. 13. Cheung PCK. The hypocholesterolemic effect of two edible mushroom: Auricularia auricula (Tree- ear) and Tremel a fuciformis (White-jel y leaf) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Nutr Res. 1996;16:1721–1725. doi: 10.1016/0271-5317(96)00191-1. 14. Kabir Y, Yamaguchi M, Kimura S. Effect of shi take (Lentinus edodes) and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1987;33:341–346. 15. Kubo K, Nanba H. The effect of maitake mushrooms on liver and serum lipids. Altern Ther Health 16. Sugiyama K, Yamakawa A, Saeki S. Correlation of suppressed linoleic acid metabolism with the hypocholesterolemic action of eritadenine in rats. Lipids. 1997;32:859–866. 17. Sugiyama K, Kawagishi H, Tanaka A, Saeki S, Yoshida S, Sakamoto H, Ishiguro Y. Isolation of plasma cholesterol-lowering components from ningyotake (Polyporus confluens) mushroom. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1992;38:335–342. 18. Kaneda T, Tokuda S. Effect of various mushroom preparations on cholesterol levels in rats. J Nutr. 19. Shao G. [Treatment of hyperlipidemia with cultivated Cordyceps –– a double-blind, randomized placebo control trial]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi (Chin J Integ Med). 1985;5:642–665. 20. Tao J, Feng KY. Experimental and clinical studies on inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation. J Tongji Med Univ. 1990;10:240–243. 21. Chang, ST. Ganoderma – the leader in production and technology of mushroom neutraceuticals. In: Kim B-K, Kim YS. , editor. Recent advances in Ganoderma lucidum research. Seoul, Korea: The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea; 1995. pp. 43–52. 22. Chen, AW.; Miles, PG. Biomedical research and the application of the mushroom nutriceuticals from Ganoderma lucidum. In: Royse DJ. , editor. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University; 1996. pp. 161–175. 23. Mizuno, T. Oriental medicinal tradition of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in China. In: Mizuno T, Kim B- K. , editor. Ganoderma lucidum. Seoul, Korea: II-Yang Pharm. Co. Ltd; 1996. pp. 101–106. 24. Sun-Soo, T. Effective dosage of the extract of Ganoderma lucidum in the treatment of various ailments. In: Royse DJ. , editor. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University; 1996. pp. 177–185. 25. Wasser SP, Weis AL. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. Crit Rev Immunol. 1999;19:65–96. 26. Chang ST, Buswel JA. Medicinal Mushrooms – A Prominent Source of Nutriceuticals for the 21st century. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research. 2003;1:257–280. 27. Shiao MS. Natural products of the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum: occurrence, biological activities, and pharmacological functions. Chem Rec. 2003;3:172–180. doi: 10.1002/tcr.10058. 28. Lee SY, Rhee HM. Cardiovascular effects of mycelium extract of Ganoderma lucidum: inhibition of sympathetic outflow as a mechanism of its hypotensive action. Chem Pharm Bul (Tokyo). 1990;38:1359–1364. 29. Rein D, Monnard I, German JB, Berger A. Screening of cholesterol absorption and synthesis inhibiting food ingredients in hamster models. FASEB J. 2000;14:A250. 30. Ceval os WH, Holmes WL, Myers RN, Smink RD. Swine in atherosclerosis research – Development of an experimental animal model and study of the effect of dietary fats on cholesterol metabolism. Atherosclerosis. 1979;34:303–317. 31. Clarkson, T.;Shively, C.; Weingand, K. Animal Models of diet-Induced Atherosclerosis. In: Beynen A, West C. , editor. Use of Animal Models for Research in Human Nutrition. Vol. 6. Basel: Karger; 1988. pp. 56–82. 32. Fadden K, Hill MJ, Latymer E, Low G, Owen RW. Steroid metabolism along the gastrointestinal tract of the cannulated pig. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999;8:35–40. 33. Hikino H, Ishiyama M, Suzuki Y, Konno C. Mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of ganoderan B: a glycan of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Med. 1989;55:423–428. 34. Bao X, Duan J, Fang X, Fang J. Chemical modifications of the (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucan from spores of Ganoderma lucidum and investigation of their physicochemical properties and immunological activity. Carbohydr Res. 2001;336:127–140. doi: 10.1016/S0008-6215(01)00238-5. 35. Zhu M, Chang Q, Wong LK, Chong FS, Li RC. Triterpene antioxidants from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytother Res. 1999;13:529–531. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199909)13:6<529::AID-PTR481>3.0.CO;2-X. 36. Wu TS, Shi LS, Kuo SC. Cytotoxicity of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:1121– 37. Gao JJ, Min BS, Ahn EM, Nakamura N, Lee HK, Hattori M. New triterpene aldehydes, lucialdehydes A-C, from Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against murine and human tumor cel s. Chem Pharm Bul (Tokyo). 2002;50:837–840. doi: 10.1248/cpb.50.837. 38. Luo J, Zhao YY, Li ZB. A new lanostane-type triterpene from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2002;4:129–134. doi: 10.1080/10286020290027416. 39. Ma J, Ye Q, Hua Y, Zhang D, Cooper R, Chang MN, Chang JY, Sun HH. New lanostanoids from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:72–75. doi: 10.1021/np010385e. 40. Komoda Y, Shimizu M, Sonoda Y, Sato Y. Ganoderic acid and its derivatives as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Chem Pharm Bul . 1989;37:531–533. 41. Mizushina Y, Takahashi N, Hanashima L, Koshino H, Esumi Y, Uzawa J, Sugawara F, Sakaguchi K. Lucidenic acid O and lactone, new terpene inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases from a basidiomycete, Ganoderma lucidum. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999;7:2047–2052. doi: 10.1016/S0968-0896(99)00121-2. 42. Ha TB, Gerhauser C, Zhang WD, Ho-Chong-Line N, Fouraste I. New lanostanoids from Ganoderma lucidum that induce NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in cultured murine hepatoma cel s. Planta Med. 2000;66:681–684. doi: 10.1055/s-2000-8647. 43. Walker KA, Kertesz DJ, Rotstein DM, Swinney DC, Berry PW, So OY, Webb AS, Watson DM, Mak AY, Burton PM, et al. Selective inhibition of mammalian lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase: a possible strategy for cholesterol lowering. J Med Chem. 1993;36:2235–2237. 44. Frye LL, Leonard DA. Lanosterol analogs: dual-action inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. Crit Rev 45. Bergstrom JD, Dufresne C, Bil s GF, Nal in-Omstead M, Byrne K. Discovery, biosynthesis, and mechanism of action of the zaragozic acids: potent inhibitors of squalene synthase. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1995;49:607–639. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.49.100195.003135. 46. Bol en P, El egaard L. The Gottingen minipig in pharmacology and toxicology. Pharmacol Toxicol. 47. Gunde-Cimerman N, Cimerman A. Pleurotus fruiting bodies contain the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase-lovastatin. Exp Mycol. 1995;19:1–6. doi: 10.1006/emyc.
1995.1001. 48. Ogawa H, Hasumi K, Sakai K, Murakawa S, Endo A. Pannorin, a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor produced by Chrysosporium pannorum. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1991;44:762–767. 49. Morisaki M, Sonoda Y, Makino T, Ogihara N, Ikekawa N, Sato Y. Inhibitory effect of 15-oxygenated sterols on cholesterol synthesis from 24,25-dihydrolanosterol. J Biochem (Tokyo). 1986;99:597–600. 50. Aoyama Y, Yoshida Y, Sonoda Y, Sato Y. 7-Oxo-24,25-dihydrolanosterol: a novel lanosterol 14 alpha- ) inhibitor which blocks electron transfer to the oxyferro intermediate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987;922:270–277. 51. Sonoda Y, Obi N, Onoda M, Sakakibara Y, Sato Y. Effects of 32-oxygenated lanosterol derivatives on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and cholesterol biosynthesis from 24,25-dihydrolanosterol. Chem Pharm Bul (Tokyo). 1992;40:2796–2799. 52. Trzaskos JM, Magolda RL, Favata MF, Fischer RT, Johnson PR, Chen HW, Ko SS, Leonard DA, Gaylor JL. Modulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by 15 alpha-fluorolanost-7-en-3 beta-ol. A mechanism-based inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:22591–22599. 53. Morand OH, Aebi JD, Dehmlow H, Ji YH, Gains N, Lengsfeld H, Himber J. Ro 48-8.071, a new 2,3- oxidosqualene:lanosterol cyclase inhibitor lowering plasma cholesterol in hamsters, squirrel monkeys, and minipigs: comparison to simvastatin. J Lipid Res. 1997;38:373–390. 54. Ness GC, Gertz KR, Hol and RC. Regulation of hepatic lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase gene expression by dietary cholesterol and cholesterol-lowering agents. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;395:233–238. doi: 10.1006/abbi.2001.2590. 55. Conde K, Roy S, Freake HC, Newton RS, Fernandez ML. Atorvastatin and simvastatin have distinct effects on hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and mRNA abundance in the guinea pig. Lipids. 1999;34:1327–1332. 56. Del Puppo M, Rauli S, Gal i Kienle M. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and hepatic 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in rats by simvastatin and pravastatin. Lipids. 1995;30:1057–1061. 57. Himber J, Missano B, Rudling M, Hennes U, Kempen HJ. Effects of stigmastanyl-phosphocholine (Ro 16-6532) and lovastatin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and lipoprotein metabolism in the hamster on different diets. J Lipid Res. 1995;36:1567–1585. 58. Krause BR, Princen HM. Lack of predictability of classical animal models for hypolipidemic activity: a good time for mice? Atherosclerosis. 1998;140:15–24. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9150(98)00141-5. 59. Ma PT, Gil G, Sudhof TC, Bilheimer DW, Goldstein JL, Brown MS. Mevinolin, an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis, induces mRNA for low density lipoprotein receptor in livers of hamsters and rabbits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:8370–8374. 60. Huff MW, Telford DE. Regulation of low density lipoprotein apoprotein B metabolism by lovastatin and cholestyramine in miniature pigs: effects on LDL composition and synthesis of LDL subfractions. Metabolism. 1989;38:256–264. 61. Tikkanen MJ. Statins: within-group comparisons, statin escape and combination therapy. Curr Opin 62. Knopp RH. Drug treatment of lipid disorders. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:498–511. doi: 63. Berger A, Gremaud G, Baumgartner M, Rein D, Monnard I, Kratky E, Geiger W, Burri J, Dionisi F, Al an M, Lambelet P. Cholesterol-lowering properties of amaranth grain and oil in hamsters. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003;73:39–47. 64. Burnett JR, Wilcox LJ, Telford DE, Kleinstiver SJ, Barrett PH, Newton RS, Huff MW, Barrett P. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by atorvastatin decreases both VLDL and LDL apolipoprotein B production in miniature pigs. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:2589–2600. 65. Burnett JR, Wilcox LJ, Telford DE, Kleinstiver SJ, Barrett PH, Newton RS, Huff MW. The magnitude of decrease in hepatic very low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B secretion is determined by the extent of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibition in miniature pigs. Endocrinology. 1999;140:5293–5302. doi: 10.1210/en.140.11.5293. 66. Miettinen TA, Strandberg TE, Gyl ing H. Noncholesterol sterols and cholesterol lowering by long-term simvastatin treatment in coronary patients: relation to basal serum cholestanol. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:1340–1346. 67. Col inder E, Cardona ME, Kozakova H, Norin E, Stern S, Midtvedt T. Biochemical intestinal parameters in pigs reared outdoors and indoors, and in germ-free pigs. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2002;49:203–209. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0442.2002.00407.x. 68. Edwards PA, Kast HR, Anisfeld AM. BAREing it al : the adoption of LXR and FXR and their roles in lipid homeostasis. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:2–12. 69. Davis RA, Miyake JH, Hui TY, Spann NJ. Regulation of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase: BAREly missing a SHP. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:533–543. 70. Bobek P, Ozdin L, Kuniak L. The effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), its ethanolic extract and extraction residues on cholesterol levels in serum, lipoproteins and liver of rat. Nahrung. 1995;39:98–99. 71. Pfeifer AM, Cole KE, Smoot DT, Weston A, Groopman JD, Shields PG, Vignaud JM, Juil erat M, Lipsky MM, Trump BF, et al. Simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized normal human liver epithelial cel s express hepatocyte characteristics and metabolize chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5123–5127. 72. Askenazi M, Driggers EM, Holtzman DA, Norman TC, Iverson S, Zimmer DP, Boers ME, Blomquist PR, Martinez EJ, Monreal AW, et al. Integrating transcriptional and metabolite profiles to direct the engineering of lovastatin-producing fungal strains. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:150–156. doi: 10.1038/nbt781. 73. Berlin E, Khan MA, Henderson GR, Kliman PG. Influence of age and sex on composition and lipid fluidity in miniature swine plasma lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis. 1985;54:187–203. 74. Burnett JR, Wilcox LJ, Telford DE, Kleinstiver SJ, Barrett PH, Newton RS, Huff MW. Inhibition of ACAT by avasimibe decreases both VLDL and LDL apolipoprotein B production in miniature pigs. J Lipid Res. 1999;40:1317–1328. 75. Ritskes-Hoitinga J, Bol en PJA. Nutrition of (Göttingen) minipigs: facts, assumptions and mysteries. 76. Gremaud G, Piguet C, Baumgartner M, Pouteau E, Decarli B, Berger A, Fay LB. Simultaneous assessment of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in humans using on-line gas chromatography/combustion and gas chromatography/pyrolysis/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2001;15:1207–1213. doi: 10.1002/rcm.365. 77. Gremaud G, Dalan E, Piguet C, Baumgartner M, Bal abeni P, Decarli B, Leser ME, Berger A, Fay LB. Effects of non-esterified stanols in a liquid emulsion on cholesterol absorption and synthesis in hypercholesterolemic men. Eur J Nutr. 2002;41:54–60. doi: 10.1007/s003940200008. 78. Nutrient Requirements for Swine – 10th Revised Edition. Washington, D. C.: National Research Council/National Academy of Science (NRC/NAS); 1998. 79. Shapiro JD, Nordstrom LJ, Mitschelen JJ, Rodwel VW, Schimke RT. Micro assay for 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in rat liver and in L-cel fibroblast. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;370:369–377. doi: 10.1016/0005-2744(74)90098-9.

Source: http://www.2live.co.za/2live_medinfo/medinfo_ganoderma_lucidum.pdf


CONSIDERAZIONI SULL’USO DEGLI IMMUNOSOPPRESSORI EQUIVALENTI DOPO TRAPIANTO D’ORGANO SOLIDO Introduzione I pazienti portatori di un trapianto d’organo solido (rene, fegato, cuore, polmone, pancreas, intestino) devono assumere quotidianamente farmaci immunosoppressori per la prevenzione del L’uso di questi farmaci ha rappresentato, e rappresenta tutt’ora, uno degli

Rodrigues regional assembly

RODRIGUES REGIONAL ASSEMBLY Executive Council PRESS RELEASE Executive Friday 30 July 2010 under the chairmanship of the Deputy Chief Commissioner, Mr. G. JABEEMISSAR and has, among its deliberations: DECIDED: to invest an amount of Rs 2.4 million in the Rodrigues General Fishing Co. Ltd, a 100% RRA-owned company which is operating the Maison Des Pêcheurs at Pointe Mo

Copyright © 2014 Articles Finder