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1 The intercellular junction where ionic channels pierce the adjacent membrane is called: (1) desmosome nexus tight junction synapse lateral interdigitations 2 The disk-shaped intercellular junction where a dense plaque with filaments is present on the cytoplasmic surface of each opposing plasma membrane is called: (1) desmosome nexus tight junction synapse lateral interdigitations 3 Cytoplasm basophilia is inherent in the cells that: (1) have cilia accumulate lipids actively synthesize proteins accumulate glycogen synthesize mucus 4 The cytoskeleton includes: (1) actin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules actin filaments, intermediate filaments, centrioles actin filaments, the Golgi complex, centrioles actin filaments, free ribosomes, microtubules intermediate filaments, microtubules, centrioles 5 The following statements regarding the Golgi complex functions are true: (1) accumulates, modifies and packs secretory products degrades aged organelles takes part in phagocytosis manufactures membrane proteins provides autolysis 6 The classification of stratified epithelia is based on (1) the shape of their basal cells the location of cell nuclei the shape of their surface cells whether they have few or many layers of cells 7 Transitional epithelium (1) is found where a duct enters the acinus in an exocrine gland is sometimes keratinized allows for the expansion of an organ due to its structure is found primarily in the male reproductive tract is easily identified in the light microscope due to this very thick basement membrane 8 Mesothelium is described as (1) simple squamous epithelium a pseudostratified epithelium a simple columnar epithelium a transitional epithelium 9 The epithelia are simple if: (1) their cells are polarized their cells form sheets all their cells rest on the basement membrane not all their cells reach the apical surface their cells are continuously sloughed 10 The following characteristics of the epithelia are true: (1) rest on the basement menbrane, are avascular, line internal and external body surfaces rest on the basement menbrane, are avascular, abound in the extracellular substance are rich in blood vessels abound in the extracellular substance their cells are polarized, their cells form sheets, are rich in blood vessels 11 The epithelium lining the intestine is characterized by the following features: (1) is simple columnar, contains goblet cells, has the brush border is simple squamous, contains small granule cells, has the brush border is simple cuboidal, has the brush border, is specialized for absorption is stratified squamous, its cells are continuously sloughed is simple columnar, contains stereocilia 12 The following statements regarding the merocrine mode of secretion are true: (1) is characterized by releasing the apical cell cytoplasm with secretory material inheres in sebaceous glands is characterized by releasing the entire cell with secretory material its mechanism is exocytosis 13 The specializations of epithelial cells on the apical surface are as follows: (1) nexuses tight junctions microvilli, cilia plasma membrane infoldings, nexuses 14 The following statements concerning erythrocytes are true: (1) are 7-8 mkm biconcave discs, lack nuclei and organells, contain hemoglobin are 7-8 mkm biconcave discs, are megakaryocyte fragments, contain hemoglobin are 7-8 mkm biconcave discs, their nuclei consist of 3-5 lobes, contain hemoglobin are motile, have nuclei and cytoplasm, contain azurophilic granules exhibit hyalomere and granulomere, contain serotonin and thromboplastin 15 The following statements concerning platelets are true: (1) are 7-8 mkm biconcave discs, lack nuclei and organells, contain hemoglobin are motile, have nuclei and cytoplasm, contain azurophilic granules their nuclei consist of 3 to 5 lobes, function in loose connective tissue are megakaryocyte fragments, exhibit hyalomere and granulomere have small dense nuclei, are involved in defense reactions 16 The following statements concerning neutrophils are true: (1) their nuclei consist of 3 to 5 lobes, contain azurophilic granules comprise 0.5 to 1% of all leucocytes, their nuclei are masked by granules are the largest circulating blood cells, have kidney-shaped nuclei have large round nuclei, comprise 20-35% of all leucocytes their nuclei have 2 to 3 lobes, their specific granules contain the crystalline core 17 The following statements concerning eosinophils are true: (1) their nuclei consist of 3 to 5 lobes, contain azurophilic granules comprise 0.5 to 1% of all leucocytes, their nuclei are masked by granules are the largest circulating blood cells, have kidney-shaped nuclei have large round nuclei, comprise 20-35% of all leucocytes their nuclei have 2 to 3 lobes, their specific granules contain the crystalline core 18 The functions of neutrophils are as follows: (1) histamine inactivation, inactivation and killing of parasitic agents release of histamine and heparin oxygen and carbon dioxide transport blood coagulation phagocytosis and and destruction of bacteria 19 The blood cells primarily responsible for cell-mediated immunity are as follows: (1) eosinophils T-lymphocytes B-lymphocytes basophils neutrophils 20 In embryogenesis, blood originates from: (1) mesoderm ectoderm endoderm mesenchyme 21 Agranulocytes include the following leukocytes: (2) lymphocytes neutrophils eosinophils basophils Ö monocytes 22 Granulocytes include the following leukocytes: (3) lymphocytes neutrophils eosinophils basophils monocytes 23 Near the final stage in the development of the erythrocyte, the normoblast (1) extrudes its nucleus and a small amount of cytoplasm extrudes a small amount of cytoplasm and plasma membrane only extrudes its nuclear contents extrudes its nucleus and cytoplasmic granules 24 Basophils (1) are the most numerous granulocytes in circulating blood contain histamine and other vasoactive substances in their granules are functionally similar to plasma cells are responsible for dilation of arterioles and thus prevent plasma leakage 25 Erythropoietin (1) stimulates platelet formation stimulates the degradation of hemoglobin increases hemoglobin-forming cells is present in the blood only in unhealthy adults 26 In embryogenesis all types of connective tissue originate from: (1) neural tube mesenchyme ectoderm endoderm notochord 27 The following statements concerning macrophages are true: (1) arise from monocytes, contain lysosomes, have variable shape manufacture collagen precursors, contain a lot of rough endoplasmic reticulum arise from activated B-lymphocytes, manufacture antibodies contain heparin and histamine, are involved in inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions possess flattened nuclei, contain a single fat drop 28 Macrophages (1) are packed with granules, which stain metachromatically with toluidine blue have receptors for opsonins on their plasma membrane act separately from the immune system in defending against infection have a smooth plasma membrane, as seen in the electron microscope 29 Compared with resting fibroblasts, fibroblasts active in connective tissue repair are characterized by (1) an absence of heterochromatin the disappearance of the Golgi apparatus an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum a decrease in the overall level of protein glycosylation None of the descriptions is correct. 30 Foreign body giant cells are (1) large multilocular fat cells derived from monocytes large mononuclear cells loaded with eosinophilic granules complexes of foreign bodies phagocytosed by bacteria 31 White fat cells of adults typically contain (1) many small lipid droplets abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum a flattened peripheral nucleus a well-developed Golgi complex 32 The following statements concerning mast cells are true: (1) arise from monocytes, contain lysosomes, have variable shape manufacture collagen precursors, contain a lot of rough endoplasmic reticulum arise from activated B-lymphocytes, manufacture antibodies contain heparin and histamine, are involved in inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions possess flattened nuclei, contain a single fat drop 33 The following statements concerning plasma cells are true: (1) arise from monocytes, contain lysosomes, have variable shape manufacture collagen precursors, contain a lot of rough endoplasmic reticulum arise from activated B-lymphocytes, manufacture antibodies contain heparin and histamine, are involved in inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions possess flattened nuclei, contain a single fat drop 34 The following statements regarding collagen fibers are true: (1) are composed of tropocollagen, electron micrographs reveal their cross-banding pattern are coiled and branching mostly consist of type III collagen are able to stretch, require special staining are secreted by reticular cells, are stained by silver impregnation 35 The following statements regarding reticular fibers are true: (1) are composed of tropocollagen, electron micrographs reveal their cross-banding pattern have great tensile strength are coiled and branching, are able to stretch, require special staining mostly consist of type III collagen, are stained by silver impregnation 36 Woven bone (1) is associated with intramembranous (direct) bone formation has a calcified cartilage core has collagen fibers arranged in parallel rows is found in mature Haversian systems 37 The first step in remodeling of bone is (1) deposition of osteoid resorption of calcified cartilage formation of a fibrocartilage callus removal of bone by osteoclasts 38 Endochondral ossification differs from intramembranous ossification in that endochondral ossification involves (1) osteoblasts secreting organic matrix erosion (resorption) of cartilage formation of osteons formation of both cortical and cancellous bone 39 Chondrocytes acquire nutrients via (1) capillaries in cartilage diffusion through cartilage transport through canaliculi phagocytosis of dead cells 40 Osteoblasts (1) regularly divide to provide increased cell numbers produce osteoid produce collagen only are located within lacunae 41 The following statements regarding elastic fibers are true: (1) are composed of tropocollagen, electron micrographs reveal their cross-banding pattern have great tensile strength are coiled and branching, are able to stretch, require special staining mostly consist of type III collagen, are stained by silver impregnation 42 The following statements concerning osteoblasts are true: (1) produce the organic portion of bone matrix, contain well developed rER and Golgi complex are multinucleated giant cells, have a ruffled border possess narrow cytoplasmic processes, maintain bone homeostasis house in their own lacunae 43 The following statements concerning osteoclasts are true: (1) produce the organic portion of bone matrix, contain well developed rER and Golgi complex are multinucleated giant cells, have a ruffled border possess narrow cytoplasmic processes, maintain bone homeostasis are derived from osteocytes 44 The following statements regarding the hyaline cartilage are true: (1) matrix contains type II collagen fibrils, undergoes age-related regressive changes is found in the auricle, the auditory tube and the epiglottis abounds in elastic fibers, never undergoes calcification exists in intervertebral disks, lacks the perichondrium 45 The following statements regarding the elastic cartilage are true: (2) matrix contains type II collagen fibrils, undergoes age-related regressive changes is found in the auricle, the auditory tube and the epiglottis abounds in elastic fibers, never undergoes calcification exists in intervertebral disks, lacks the perichondrium is found at the junction sites between tendons and articular cartilage 46 The following statements concerning the skeletal muscle tissue are true: (1) is derived from the myotome, consists of striated muscle fibers, possesses satellite cells is derived from the mesenchyme, its cells lack cross striation is derived from the mesoderm, is striated, its cells are joined by intercalated discs consists of muscle cells, its contraction is involuntary 47 The following statements regarding the hyaline cartilage are true: (1) matrix contains type II collagen fibrils, undergoes age-related regressive changes is found in the auricle, the auditory tube and the epiglottis abounds in elastic fibers, never undergoes calcification exists in intervertebral disks, lacks the perichondrium 48 The following statements concerning the smooth muscle tissue are true: (1) is derived from the myotome, consists of striated muscle fibers, possesses satellite cells is derived from the mesenchyme, its cells lack cross striation is derived from the mesoderm, is striated, its cells are joined by intercalated discs consists of muscle cells, its contraction is voluntary 49 The following statements concerning the cardiac muscle tissue are true: (1) is derived from the myotome, consists of striated muscle fibers, possesses satellite cells is derived from the mesoderm, is striated, its cells are joined by intercalated discs consists of muscle cells, its contraction is involuntary 50 The muscle cells producing hormones are: (1) atypical cardiac myocytes smooth myocytes atrial myocytes satellite cells 51 The Ca++-binding protein of the thin myofilament is (1) tropomyosin troponin actin alpha-actinin myosin 52 The thick filament of skeletal muscle contains (3) tropomyosin troponin actin alpha-actinin myosin 53 During the contraction cycle of a skeletal muscle (1) the action potential travels from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane Ca++ binds to tropomyosin the myosin head stores Ca++ tropomyosin moves away from the actin and allows actin and myosin to interact sarcomeres shorten during relaxation of the muscle 54 The following statements regarding the repair of smooth muscle fibers are true: (1) regeneration is due to the satellite cells smooth muscle cells can divide, minor wounds heal by means of new smooth muscle cells regeneration is not possible at all any defect is closed by a connective tissue scar 55 The following statements regarding the repair of cardiac muscle tissue are true: (1) regeneration is due to the satellite cells cardiac muscle cells can divide the cardiac muscle lacks the capacity for reparative regeneration minor wounds heal by production of new muscle cells 56 The glial cells arising from blood monocytes are: (1) microglia oligodendrocytes protoplasmic astrocytes fibrous astrocytes ependymal cells 57 The glial cells lining the brain ventricles and the spinal canal are: (1) ependymal cells microglia oligodendrocytes protoplasmic astrocytes fibrous astrocytes 58 The glial cells forming sheaths around the neuronal processes in nerve fibers are: (1) microglia protoplasmic astrocytes fibrous astrocytes ependymal cells oligodendrocytes (lemmocytes) 59 Axons differ from dendrites because axons (1) contain more Nissl bodies contain synaptic vesicles at their termination are surrounded by a plasma membrane contain intermediate filaments lack mitochondria 60 The node of Ranvier (1) is the site where two adjacent Schwann cells meet is a junction of two adjacent nerve cells is covered by the myelin sheath lacks both a basal lamina and perinodal cytoplasm 61 Cells which myelinate neurons in the central nervous system are called: (1) Schwann cells Oligodendrocytes Satellite cells Astrocytes 62 The nerve cells of the 1-st type of Dogel are best described as : (1) Bipolar neurons of the autonomic ganglia Afferent nerve cells SIF-cells of the autonomic ganglia Posessing the long axon 63 The following statement concerning the spinal ganglion is true: (1) contains pseudounipolar neurons preganglionic fibers form synapses on their neurons the axons of their neurons are unmyelinated contains multipolar neurons 64 The cerebellar cortex includes the following layers: (1) molecular, external granular, external pyramidal molecular, of Purkinje cells, granular molecular, stellate, granular molecular, of Purkinje cells, multiform internal granular, internal pyramidal, multiform 65 The following statements regarding the granular type of the cerebral cortex are: (1) contains well-developed granular layers, is present in the sensitive areas of the cortex contains well developed pyramidal layers, is present in the motor areas of the cortex contains a well developed polymorphic layer contains a well developed molecular layer 66 The ganglion cell layer of the retina contains the cell bodies of (1) photoreceptors horizontal cells amacrine cells bipolar cells ganglion neurons 67 The optic nerve fibre layer of the retina contains the axons of neurons: (1) amacrine ganglion bipolar horizontal photoreceptor 68 Aqueous humor flows from the (1) canal of Schlemm, trabecular meshwork, posterior chamber, anterior chamber anterior chamber, posterior chamber, trabecular meshwork, canal of Schlemm posterior chamber, anterior chamber, trabecular meshwork, canal of Schlemm trabecular meshwork, canal of Schlemm, posterior chamber, anterior chamber posterior chamber, anterior chamber, canal of Schlemm, trabecular meshwork 69 To reach the photoreceptors of the retina, light must pass through: (1) Choroid Neural cell layer of retina Pigmented cell layer of retina Sclera 70 The external and internal limiting membranes of the retina are formed by the processes of: (1) glial cells photoreceptors amacrine cells ganglion cells horizontal cells 71 The following cells of the spiral organ enclose the tunnel of Corti: (1) outer hair cells outer phalangeal cells pillar cells inner hair cells inner phalangeal cells 72 Endothelial cells with pores lacking diaphragms are typical of capillaries in the (1) biceps femoris muscle pituitary gland kidney testis pancreas 73 An important function of arterioles is to (1) reabsorb tissue fluids maintain blood pressure serve as a source of pericytes for vessel repair provide a site for cells to enter the connective tissue 74 Secretory cardiomyocytes function to (1) inhibit the Na+-uresis elevate the blood pressure stimulate the reabsorption of sodium followed by the decrease of blood pressure constrict the blood vessels stimulate the excretion of sodium followed by the decrease of blood pressure 75 The following statements regarding the vascular tunica intima are true: (1) consists of circular layers of smooth muscle cells consists of endothelium, subendothelial layer and internal elastic membrane consists of loose connective tissue contains reticular fibres and proteoglycans secreted by smooth muscle cells is separated from the tunica media by the external elastic membrane 76 The following statements regarding the vascular tunica media are true: (1) consists of endothelium, subendothelial layer and internal elastic membrane consists of loose connective tissue consists of circular layers of smooth muscle cells, is relatively thick in arteries contains blood vessels, is relatively thin in arteries and relatively thick in veins 77 The following statements concerning the thymus are true: (1) provides antigen-independent development of T-lymphocytes contains lymphatic nodules contains pluripotential stem hemopoietic cells its lobule stroma is composed of reticular tissue 78 The following statements concerning the splenic white pulp are true: (1) consists of periarterial lymphatic sheaths and lymphatic nodules contains splenic sinuses erythrocytes are destroyed and phagocytosed by macrophages here includes red blood cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages 79 The following statements regarding the lymph node medulla are true: (1) contains medullary cords and medullary sinuses contains lymphoid nodules is a T-dependent zone the stroma consists of connective tissue cells 80 The specific interaction between a hormon and target cells is provided by: (1) chemical nature of a hormon tissue nature of target cells target cells origination the existence of hormon receptors on plasma membrane of target cells the origin of the endocrine gland 81 One of the following statements concerning the thyroid secretion is true (1) follicular cells synthesize and secret thyroglobulin into the blood iodination of thyroglobulin occurs in the colloid resorbtion vacuoles are the structures of hormon synthesis hormones are released into continuous capillaries thyroglobulin is an active form of thyroid hormones 82 Thyroid parafollicular cells are characterised: (1) arise from the neural tube reside in the wall of blood capillaries apical portions are in contact with colloid cytoplasm contains the granules with calcitonin basal portions rest on the connective tissue layer 83 The following statement regarding the releasing factors is true: (1) are produced by neurons of arcuate, ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei of hypothalamus their synthesis and discharge are controlled by positive feedback they regulate the function of the cells of neurohypophysis are accumulated and released into bloodstream in pars nevrosa are steroids 84 The following statement concerning the adrenal cortex is true: (1) secrets steroid hormones consists of nervous cells arises from ectoderm secrets catecholamines is divided into two zones 85 The following statement concerning the neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei is: (1) their cell bodies reside in neurohypophysis their axons convey neurosecretory products to secondary capillary network of hypophysis their axons terminate on continuous capillaries of the pars nervosa they secret the tropic hormons their axons pass via infundibular stalk to the neurohypophysis 86 The following statement regarding the parathyroid glands is true: (1) contain principal and oxyphil endocrine cells produce thyroxine are adenohypophysis-dependent glands their endocrine cell cords are surrounded by continuous capillaries their normone decreases the blood calcium level 87 The following statement concerning the tooth is true: (1) consists of three parts - crown, neck and root the enamel covers all tooth parts dentin covers the root of the tooth the crown is covered by cementum are formed by three types of the tissues: enamel, dentin and cementum 88 The following statement concerning the tooth development is true: (1) odontoblasts arise from outer enamel epithelium ameloblasts arise from inner enamel epithelium enamel appears first, dentin and cementum are secreted later dendal pulp arises from enamel organ enamel organ is developted from mesenchyme 89 The following statement concerning the esophageal glands is true: (1) proper glands are located in mucosa proper glands are compound tubuloalveolar ones produce serous secretion esophageal cardiac glands occur in submucosa esophageal cardiac glands are present in proximal portion of the organ only 90 The mucosa of alimentary tract consists of: (1) lining epithelium muscularis mucosa of striated muscles lamina propria of dense connective tissue diffuse lymphatic tissue and nodules are not located in lamina propria glands are absent in mucosa 91 The lamina propria of alimentary mucosa contains glands in the following organ: (1) large intestine stomach duodenum ileum jejunum 92 Pyloric glands differ from fundic glands in that the pyloric glands (1) contain numerous cells that acidify the stomach contain mucous neck cells contain cells that secrete cytokines lack cells that secrete proteolytic enzymes (e.g., pepsinogen) lack mucous gland cells 93 The presence of stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium with submucosal glands is characteristic of the (1) duodenum ileum rectum esophagus anal canal 94 Dentin is produced by: (1) Cementoblasts Periodontal membrane Ameloblasts Odontoblasts 95 The morphological center of the liver acinus (of Rappaport) is (1) the portal area the space of Mall the central vein the hepatic vein the space of Disse 96 The following statement regarding the lower surfase of the tongue is true: (1) its mucosa forms papillae its epithelium is keratinized its epithelium contains taste buds its lamina propria contains glands possesses the submucosa 97 The following statement regarding serous secretory portions of salivary gands is true: (1) are alveolar are tubular serous cells are columnar cell cytoplasm is acidophilic serous cells are characterized by basal striations 98 The following statement regarding the mucus secretory portions of the salivary glands is true: (1) are spherical in shape mucous cells are conic mucous cells are basophilic due to numerous ribosomes mucous cells are light due to mucinogen globules mucous cells are characterized by basal striations 99 The distinctive feature of the mixed secretory portions of salivary glands is: (1) the absence of myoepithelial cells the presence of serous demilunes the presence of striated epithelial cells the presence of stratified cuboidal cells the alveolar shape 100 Gastric fundic glands are characterized: (1) occur in submucosa are compound tubular are simple tubular and slightly branched consist of two types of the cells secret pancreatic juice 101 The following statement concerning piloric region of the stomach is true: (1) pyloric gastric pits are not deep pyloric glands are simple tubular branched chif cells are predominant pyloric glands contain parietal cells its muscularic externa is very thin 102 A distinctive feature of the duodenum is the presence of: (1) lymphatic nodules Pejer's patches mucosal villi mucosal crypts submucosal glands 103 The gastric pits are: (1) glands crypts villi invaginations of the epithelium into mucosal lamina propria folds 104 One of the following statement concerning the pancreatic islet is true: (1) are located in the body of the organ are more numerous in the pancreatic head contain five types of endocrine cells lack blood capillaries the cells are hypophysis-depended 105 The pancreatic acinus is characterized: (1) consists of cuboidal secretory cells basal pole of cells is acidophilic the basal cytoplasm of the cells contains Golgi complex apical pole of cells is basophilic the apical cell cytoplasm contains zymogen (secretory) granules 106 The liver capillaries are: (1) continuous and fenestrated continuous and sinusoids discontinuous and fenestrated discontinuous and sinusoids 107 The centroacinar cells of the pancreas belong to: (1) acinus interlobular duct intralobular duct intercalated duct striated duct 108 In sections of the lung, one can observe in the terminal bronchioles (1) C-cartilage Clara cells squamous epithelium mucous glands goblet cells 109 The epithelium of the trachea (1) is a columnar epithelium with NO goblet cells is a stratified squamous epithelium is a pseudostratified ciliated epithelium varies from columnar to cuboidal is a simple squamous epithelium 110 Oxygen molecules in the alveolus pass preferentially through the following sequence of layers to get into the blood: (1) cytoplasm of alveolar I cells - basal lamina - cytoplasm of endothelial cells - basal lami surfactant - cytoplasm of alveolar I cells - basal lamina - cytoplasm of endothelial cells cytoplasm of alveolar I cells - basal lamina - surfactant - cytoplasm of endothelial cells cytoplasm of alveolar II cells - basal lamina - cytoplasm of endothelium surfactant - cytoplasm of endothelial cell - cytoplasm of alveolar I cells - basal lamina 111 The cells belived to have an endocrine function in the respiratory system are (1) brush cells goblet cells basal cells ciliated cells small granule cells 112 The large bronchus is more characterized: (1) the epithelium is simple cuboidal submucosa is absent the glands are located in mucosa the cartilaginous layer consists of hyaline plates the adventitia is composed of dense connective tissue 113 The morphological feature of small bronchus is: (1) contains small plates of elastic cartilage contains the submucosa with glands consists of mucosa and adventitia mucosa forms the pits muscularis mucosa is absent 114 The small bronchus is more characterized: (1) contains small plates of elactic cartilage contains the submucosa and glands consists of mucosa and adventitia contains the muscularis externa possesses the nondeveloped muscularis mucosa 115 The key feature of terminal bronchiolar epithelium is true: (1) is pseudostratified columnar ciliated ciliated cells increase in number goblet cells are present brush cells and granule cells are prevalent Clara cells increase in number 116 The thick skin is characterized: (1) covers the palms and soles contains hair follicles possesses sebaceous glands has the thinest epidermis covers the surface of the body 117 The following statement regarding the thin skin is true: (1) has hair follicles sebaceous glands are absent its epigermis is thick contains arrector pili muscles covers the palms and soles 118 The following statement regarding the skin dermis is true: (1) its papillary layer consists of dense connective tissue lacks blood vessels and nerve fibres possesses numerous receptors its reticular layer consists of loose connective tissue is developed from ectoderm 119 ADH or vasopressin (1) is synthesized by the adenohypophysis increases the number of water channels in the epithelium of the collecting tubules increases intracellular Ca++ levels decreases the resorption of water by the proximal tubules increases water permeability of the endothelium of the vasa recta 120 Keratohyalin granules (1) are located in the stratum corneum are intensely eosinophilic due to the presence of a histidine-rich protein are not bounded by a membrane but lie free in the cytoplasm are released into the extracellular space at the upper border of the stratum granulosum 121 Mature melanin granules can be found in the_____ of melanocytes (1) Golgi apparatus rough endoplasmic reticulum nuclei arms (cell processes) lysosomes 122 The following statement concerning the renal filtration barrier is true: (1) includes the capsular parietal layer includes the epithelium of peritubular capillaries glomerular basement membrane consists of three layers and is the main barrier component lamina densa of glomerular basement membrane contains laminin laminae lucidae consist of collagen network 123 The following statement of renal macula densa is true: (1) is formed in proximal convoluted tubule its located in urinary pole of renal corpuscle its cells produce renin its epithelial cells are cuboidal in shape its cells control NaCl concentration in urine 124 The mesangial cells of renal corpuscles are characterized: (1) these cells and their extracellular matrix constitute the mesangium are located among the peritubular capillaries are the parts of filtration barrier are involved in reabsorbtion their cells are epithelial 125 The juxtaglomerular cells are (1) located in the interlobular arteriole associated by gap junctions with the cells of the macula densa modified smooth muscle cells that function in protein secretion modified epithelial cells that monitor the sodium content of the blood 126 Select the path of glucose from the blood to Bowman's space (1) endothelial cell - podocyte - basement membrane - mesangial cell endothelial cell - basement membrane - podocyte endothelial cell - basement membrane - mesangial cell mesangial cell - basement membrane - podocyte 127 The nephron consists of all of the following, EXCEPT (1) glomeruli thin segments collecting ducts proximal straight tubules distal convoluted tubules 128 Spermatogenesis takes place in the following tubules: (1) straight tubules rete testis seminiferous tubules ductuli efferentes ductus deferens 129 The following event takes place at the spermatogenetic stage of growth: (1) mitotic division of primary spermatocytes meiotic division secondary spermatocytes mitotic division of spermatogonia prophase of the first meiotic division meiotic division of spermatogonia 130 The following statement concerning Sertoli cells is true: (1) their apical portions does not have the processes possess centrioles and are capable of division their plasma membrane have receptors for LH secret testosterone secret testicular fluid, ABP, and inhibin 131 The following structures constitute the blood-testis barrier. What do the structures provide the immune isolation? (1) capillary wall connective tissue lymphatic sinusoid Sertoli - Sertoli tight junctions tunica propria of seminiferous tubules 132 The intratesticular part of the male genital ducts includes: (1) ductuli efferentes ductus epididymis rete testis seminiferous tubules ductus deferents 133 The spermatogenetic stage of formation (spermiogenesis) includes: (1) mitotic division of spermatogonia meiotic division of spermatogonia meiotic division of primary spermatocytes meiotic division of secondary spermatocytes differentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa 134 A single primary spermatocyte gives rise to spermatozoa (1) 1 2 4 8 16 135 The cells in the testis that are responsible for the blood-testis barrier are the (1) Leydig's cells spermatozoa Sertoli's cells myoepithelial cells endothelial cells of lymphatic channels 136 Testosterone is produced by: (1) interstitial cells of Leydig Sertoli cells spermatogonia spermatids myoid cells 137 The folowing statement concerning ovarian corpus luteum is true: (1) formation of corpus luteum is controlled by FSH mature corpus luteum secretes progesterone high blood progesterone level stimulates development of ovarian follicles corpus luteum of menstruation remains active for 28 days corpus luteum production of progesterone is controlled by FSH 138 Oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis in that oogenesis (1) starts before birth begins at birth and is completed by puberty begins at birth and is completed by menopause begins at puberty and continues until death 139 The chorionic villus in a mature placenta (1) is bathed by fetal blood in the intervillous space is the site of maternal-fetal gas exchange is bounded externally by a continuous cytotrophoblastic layer contains maternal blood vessels surrounded by extraembryonic mesoderm 140 The following event takes place in the atresia of ovarian follicles: (1) atresia of primordial follicles leaves to form the atretic follicle atresia of primary and secondary follicles leaves no traces of their existence oocytes undergo degeneration and autolysis results in corpus luteum formation atresia declines in climacteric period 141 The following statement concerning the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle is true: (1) actively secriting corpus luteum is present in the ovary follicules at various stages of development are present in the ovary the ovaries secret progesterone in this phase progesterone stimulates the ovarian follicle development at the end of this phase corpus luteum berins to regress 142 The following statement concerning the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle is true: (1) corpus luteum is formed in this phase the blood level of estrogens rises and reaches the peak the ovaries secrete estrogens at the begining of this phase corpus luteum regresses lasts from the 1st to 14th day of the cycle 143 The following statement concerning the basal layer of endometrium is true(1) is retained during the cycle and serves for regeneration of the functional layer is supplied by helical arterioles lacks stem and undifferentiated cells for re-epithelialization includes the necks of the uterine glands includes the covering epithelium and peripheral part of lamina propria 144 Within the term placenta, the fetal and maternal circulation are separated by (1) endothelium of fetal capillaries, syncytiotrophoblast, and a continuous cytotrophoblast endothelium of fetal capillaries, cytotrophoblast, and endothelium of maternal capillaries endothelium of fetal capillaries and syncytiotrophoblast endothelium of fetal capillaries, syncytiotrophoblast, and endothelium of maternal capillaries 145 The secondary follicle is characterized by (1) a single layer of flat follicular cells large spaces (antra) among the granulosa cells filled with fluid (liquor folliculi) a secondary oocyte numerous theca lutein cells 146 During the early proliferative phase of the endometrium, (1) the spiral arteries are constricting for long periods of time menstruation occurs progesterone levels in the blood are at their maximum a female is the most fertile several follicles are growing within an ovary 147 Fertilization normally occurs within (1) the ampulla of the oviduct the body of the uterus the peritoneal cavity the isthmus of the oviduct any region of the oviduct 148 The following statement regarding the secretion mode of mammary gland alveolar cells is true: (1) protein component of milk is released via apocrine mode lipid component of milk is released via apocrine mode lipid component of milk is released via merocrine mode protein component is released via holocrine mode lipid component is released via cytocrine mode 149 The results of fertilization is the follow: (1) sex determination blastocyst formation initiation of gastrulation formation of the morula initiation of differentiation of germ layers 150 The following statement concerning the human cleavage is true: (1) is a process of successive rapid divisions blastomeres increase in volume during cleavage proceeds in uterus when morula is formed is meroblastic, equal and asynchronous proceeds in oviduct during the first seven days of gestation 151 The following statement concerning the blastocyst is true: (1) contains the inner trophoblastic layer is surrounded by zona pellucida after implantation lacks its own cavity contains the outer cell mass called the embryoblast lies in uterine mucous layer until it is attached to the endometrium 152 The following statement concerning the first stage of gastrulation is true: (1) embryoblast is transformed into bilaminar disk migration is a mechanism of this stags epiblast will give rise to two germ layers occurs during the first five days of development hypoblast will not be displaced to extraembryonic regions 153 The following statement concerning the mesoderm differentiation is true: (1) somites differentiate into nephrotome myotome gives rise to smooth muscle tissue coelom appears in intermediate mesoderm coelom is formed in paraxial mesoderm somites divide into dermotome, myotome and sclerotome 154 The following statement regarding the fertilization is true: (1) occurs in oviduct ampulla is the part of progenesis requires about 2 hours completes the initial period includes the first meiotic division 155 The following statement regarding the neurulation is true: (1) includes formation of neural plate, neural groove, neural plates and neural crest neural crest gives rise to cortex of adrenal glands dermotome induces the overlyning ectoderm to form the neural plate neural folds are the origin of neural tube sclerotome induces the overlyning ectoderm to form the neural groove 155 The following statement concerning implantation is true: (1) is a process of blastocyst invasion into endometrium consists of three stages begins on the 3d day of development invasion proper lasts 20 hours is hormon-independing 156 The following statement concerning the endometrium in pregnancy is true:(1) is called the decidua, because it is shed off in parturition its decidua capsularis underlies the implantation site its decidua basalis separates the embryo from uterine lumen its decidua capsularis covers the rest psrt of endometrium lacks decidual cells 157 The following statement concerning the fetal part of placenta is true: (1) umbilical cord is not attached to the fetal surfase includes the chorionic plate and tertiary villi villi project into extraembryonic cavity terminal villi are attached to maternal tissues amnion underlies the basal plate of placenta 158 The following statement concerning the maternal part of placenta is true: (1) includes the decidua basalis decidua basalis lacks decidual cells decidual plate is the upper part of decidua basalis that remains after parturition fetal and maternal blood mix in lacunae placental septa profect from decidua capsularis 159 The following statement regarding the selective exchange through the placental barrier is true: (1) antibodies cannot cross the barrior gases, electrolytes,some nutrients and wastes freely pass through the barrier by diffusion RBCs never pass through the barrier steroid hormones do not reach the fetus protein hormones freely pass through the barrier 160 The following statement concerning the umbilical cord is true: (1) is covered with amnionic epithelium includes one artery and two veins contains loose connective tissue lacks the allantois lacks yolk sac remnants

Source: http://belpathol.1gb.ru/students/engl_hist_2013-14_text.doc.pdf

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Leitfaden Pille und andere hormonelle Verhütungsmethoden-<abbr>Neu</abbr> Leitfaden Pille und andere hormonelle Verhütungsmethoden-Neu Dieser Thread soll häufig gestellte Fragen beantworten. Bitte schau hier zuerst und eröffne nur dann einen Thread, wenn deine Frage nicht beantwortet wird. Das am häufigsten angewendete hormonelle Verhütungsmittel ist die Pille. Meist ist

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