What does a chlamydia
What do I need to know about
chlamydia and gonorrhea?
‣ Chlamydia is the most frequently reported
health department and/or local health departments
communicable disease in Utah, followed closely by
‣ The local health department will follow-up with
‣ In 2008, over 6,000 cases of chlamydia and nearly
health care providers and infected patients to confirm
500 cases of gonorrhea were diagnosed in Utah. Two-
treatment and ensure sex partners are tested and
thirds of all cases were diagnosed in 15-24 year olds.
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea are both reportable
‣ Local health departments will require the following
patient information from medical providers:Name, address, phone numbers, date of birth, race/
‣ Diagnosing laboratories are required by Utah law
ethnicity, sex, pregnancy status, date of treatment, and
to report chlamydia and gonorrhea cases to the state
What are the long-term
health effects of chlamydia
Transmission & Long-Term Effects
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea are transmitted in bodily
‣ Untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea infections
fluids during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and epididymitis, leading to infertility/sterility, pelvic/testicular
‣ Babies who are born to infected mothers can
contract chlamydia and/or gonorrhea through exposure to vaginal/cervical secretions, resulting in
‣ The majority of PID cases are diagnosed in patients
ophthalmic and respiratory infections.
infected with chlamydia and/or gonorrhea.
‣ Patients with chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other sexually
transmitted infections can be more susceptible to HIV infection.
Transmission & Long-T
If I can't see the gonorrhea, is it
‣ Most patients infected with chlamydia and/or gonorrhea
‣ Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women
experience no signs or symptoms; 75% of women and
may include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding,
50% of men with chlamydia are asymptomatic.
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea can be transmitted to the
throat during oral sex; this can cause symptoms ranging
abnormal vaginal discharge, dysuria, lower
abdominal pain, lower back pain, nausea, fever,
pain during intercourse, or bleeding between
‣ If a patient presents with any symptoms common to
chlamydia or gonorrhea infection, a health care provider
should conduct an STD screening, presumptively treat,
penile discharge, dysuria, burning and itching
and instruct the patient to abstain from any sexual activity
around the opening of the penis, or epididymitis
until test results are back and/or treatment is completed.
How can I combat myths about
chlamydia and gonorrhea?
• Female condoms are also available.
‣ The best way to prevent the transmission of chlamydia,
• It is not recommended that natural membrane condoms
gonorrhea, and other STDs is to abstain from sex.
(frequently & incorrectly called lambskin condoms) be used for the prevention of STDs. These condoms can have pores
‣ Sexually active patients can reduce their risk through
up to 1500 nanometers in diameter and allow bacteria and
regular screening combined with mutual monogamy with an
viruses to easily pass through them.
‣ Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and spermicides do
‣ Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly not prevent the transmission of any STD, including chlamydia
during oral, anal, and vaginal sex, can greatly reduce
(though not eliminate) the risk of chlamydia and gonorrhea transmission.
Patients may benefit from being reminded that
• If your patient has a latex allergy, they should consider
washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after
sex will not prevent any STD.
What can I do to calm my
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea can be diagnosed by
‣ Patients should be tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea at least
testing urine or swab specimens collected from
the site(s) of the body at risk for infection (pharynx,
• Older than 25 and having sex with more than one partner
‣ A urine test may not detect a vaginal, cervical,
• Older than 25 and have a new sex partner
rectal, or pharyngeal infection; therefore, health care
providers must ask about the specific screening needs of each patient.
‣ Health care providers should encourage patients to call in if
symptoms appear or worsen at any time. Presumptive treatment for
‣ Patients with chlamydia and/or gonorrhea should be
symptomatic patients and their partners (expedited partner therapy)
What hurts more? The infection
or the treatment?
‣ Infected patients and their sex partner(s) should be
instructed to abstain from any sexual contact until 7
days after a single-dose regimen or after completion
Pregnant women with chlamydia should be treated with Azithromycin : 1 g oral y in a single dose.
of a 7-day regiment in order to prevent reinfection.
‣ Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) is the clinical
practice of treating the sex partner(s) of patients
diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea by providing
prescriptions of medications to the patient to take to
his/her partners without the health care provider first
Treat for chlamydia if chlamydial infection is not ruled out.
examining the partners. EPT is now legal in Utah.
Gonococcal Infections of the Pharynx
‣ Visit www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/ for guidelines.
*Please note that updated treatment guidelines will be available from the CDC September 2010.
Where can I find more
‣ Catch the Answers www.catchtheanswers.com
‣ Chlamydia & Gonorrhea www.cdc.gov/std/
‣ CDC Treatment Guidelines www.cdc.gov/std/treatment
‣ CDC EPT Information www.cdc.gov/std/ept
‣ Condom Effectiveness www.cdc.gov/condomeffectiveness/brief.html
‣ Utah HIV/AIDS Info www.aidsinfoutah.net/
‣ Utah’s HIV/STD/Viral Hepatitis Prevention Program http://health.utah.gov/cdc/
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