What does a chlamydia
look like?
What do I need to know about
chlamydia and gonorrhea?
General Information
‣ Chlamydia is the most frequently reported
health department and/or local health departments communicable disease in Utah, followed closely by ‣ The local health department will follow-up with ‣ In 2008, over 6,000 cases of chlamydia and nearly health care providers and infected patients to confirm 500 cases of gonorrhea were diagnosed in Utah. Two- treatment and ensure sex partners are tested and thirds of all cases were diagnosed in 15-24 year olds.
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea are both reportable ‣ Local health departments will require the following patient information from medical providers:Name, address, phone numbers, date of birth, race/ ‣ Diagnosing laboratories are required by Utah law ethnicity, sex, pregnancy status, date of treatment, and to report chlamydia and gonorrhea cases to the state General Information
What are the long-term
health effects of chlamydia
and gonorrhea?
Transmission & Long-Term Effects
Long-Term Effects
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea are transmitted in bodily ‣ Untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea infections fluids during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and epididymitis, leading to infertility/sterility, pelvic/testicular ‣ Babies who are born to infected mothers can contract chlamydia and/or gonorrhea through exposure to vaginal/cervical secretions, resulting in ‣ The majority of PID cases are diagnosed in patients erm Effects
ophthalmic and respiratory infections.
infected with chlamydia and/or gonorrhea.
‣ Patients with chlamydia, gonorrhea, and other sexually transmitted infections can be more susceptible to HIV infection. Transmission & Long-T
If I can't see the gonorrhea, is it
still there?
‣ Most patients infected with chlamydia and/or gonorrhea
‣ Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women experience no signs or symptoms; 75% of women and may include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding, 50% of men with chlamydia are asymptomatic.
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea can be transmitted to the throat during oral sex; this can cause symptoms ranging abnormal vaginal discharge, dysuria, lower abdominal pain, lower back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between ‣ If a patient presents with any symptoms common to chlamydia or gonorrhea infection, a health care provider should conduct an STD screening, presumptively treat, penile discharge, dysuria, burning and itching and instruct the patient to abstain from any sexual activity around the opening of the penis, or epididymitis until test results are back and/or treatment is completed.
How can I combat myths about
chlamydia and gonorrhea?
• Female condoms are also available.
‣ The best way to prevent the transmission of chlamydia, • It is not recommended that natural membrane condoms gonorrhea, and other STDs is to abstain from sex.
(frequently & incorrectly called lambskin condoms) be used for the prevention of STDs. These condoms can have pores ‣ Sexually active patients can reduce their risk through up to 1500 nanometers in diameter and allow bacteria and regular screening combined with mutual monogamy with an viruses to easily pass through them.
‣ Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) and spermicides do ‣ Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly not prevent the transmission of any STD, including chlamydia during oral, anal, and vaginal sex, can greatly reduce (though not eliminate) the risk of chlamydia and gonorrhea transmission.
Patients may benefit from being reminded that
• If your patient has a latex allergy, they should consider washing the genitals, urinating, or douching after
sex will not prevent any STD.
What can I do to calm my
patients' anxieties?
Screening Recommendations
‣ Chlamydia and gonorrhea can be diagnosed by
‣ Patients should be tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea at least testing urine or swab specimens collected from the site(s) of the body at risk for infection (pharynx, • Older than 25 and having sex with more than one partner ‣ A urine test may not detect a vaginal, cervical, • Older than 25 and have a new sex partner rectal, or pharyngeal infection; therefore, health care providers must ask about the specific screening needs of each patient. ‣ Health care providers should encourage patients to call in if symptoms appear or worsen at any time. Presumptive treatment for ‣ Patients with chlamydia and/or gonorrhea should be symptomatic patients and their partners (expedited partner therapy) Screening Recommendations
What hurts more? The infection
or the treatment?
Treatment Guidelines
‣ Infected patients and their sex partner(s) should be instructed to abstain from any sexual contact until 7 days after a single-dose regimen or after completion Pregnant women with chlamydia should be treated with Azithromycin : 1 g oral y in a single dose.
of a 7-day regiment in order to prevent reinfection.
‣ Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT) is the clinical Treatment
practice of treating the sex partner(s) of patients diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea by providing prescriptions of medications to the patient to take to his/her partners without the health care provider first Treat for chlamydia if chlamydial infection is not ruled out.
examining the partners. EPT is now legal in Utah.
Gonococcal Infections of the Pharynx
‣ Visit for guidelines.
*Please note that updated treatment guidelines will be available from the CDC September 2010.
Treatment Guidelines
Where can I find more
Provider Resources
‣ Catch the Answers
‣ Chlamydia & Gonorrhea
‣ CDC Treatment Guidelines
‣ CDC EPT Information
‣ Condom Effectiveness
‣ Utah HIV/AIDS Info
‣ Utah’s HIV/STD/Viral Hepatitis Prevention Program
Provider Resources


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