I. Read the article.
Four styles of corporate leadership
What does it take to be a good chairman? CCG, the London-based headhunters, has attempted to find out. It
interviewed 48 chairs - 28 of whom were from the 100 biggest UK companies listed on the London Stock
Exchange -and 12 chief executives. It then sent questionnaires to more than 400 main board members of 151 large
Stock Exchange-listed UK companies and analysed replies from 117 individuals, including 36 of those
Four distinct, preferred styles of corporate leadership emerged: Facilitators
are hands-off, working with and
through a chief executive. They have warm and open personal relationships with all board members. Their style is
trusting, supportive, sensitive, aware and purposeful. There is a balance between head and heart, between
deliberately standing back to see the wider perspective and involvement with people, issues and vision. This style
was the most popular, favoured by 32 per cent of respondents. Thinkers
work through a chief executive but have no doubt about their own power and are likely to get their own
way on the big issues. They can be a formidable combination with a chief executive, provided both agree on fun-
damentals. Although they are trusted, relationships will be more distant and based on respect, with a recognition of
private agendas. Penetrating understanding of the issues and the people is likely to be accompanied by strongly
held (but not always disclosed) views. Favoured by 25 per cent. Drivers
are likely to dominate by force of personality. There is variety in the importance, closeness and style of
their relationships, which are not always consistent but are not difficult to read. There is less emphasis on
sophisticated analysis, or on the communication of a vision, and more on strategy, action and results. They require
total loyalty and commitment, both to themselves and the company. They are unquestionably the boss; anyone
carrying the title of chief executive will be at best a number two or a chief operating officer. Favoured by 23 per
cent of respondents, though not much liked by chief executives. Integrators
are talented at winning both hearts and minds, and intellectually brilliant, with a flair for
communication and relationships. Their style is open, trusting, empathic and empowering. They have strong
strategic and analytical skills, and are able to see the big picture. They are immersed in the business. They are more
interested in strategy than operations and would work best sharing leadership with a chief executive who
complements their qualities. Preferred by 20 per cent of respondents, but most popular among non-executive
1. Each of the statements a-d was made by someone with one of the four management styles in the article.
Match each statement with the management style of the person who said it (8).
a) I believe in delegating responsibility as much as possible. I try to be open and trusting towards the
people I work with. I leave detail to my managers and focus on longer-term strategy, rather than day-to-day operations. I get on really well with non-executive directors.
b) I'm really interested in what motivates people and I try to balance emotional issues with intellectual ones. I
think it's really important to get on with other people and understand their concerns. I try and support the people I work with as much as possible.
c) I work very closely with the CEO and we make a great team. I have very clear and strong views about what
needs to be done, but I don't always tell people what they are! I have respect for the people I work with, and I expect them to respect me.
d) I need people who think about the company 25 hours a day. I'm the boss round here. All this stuff about the
chair and the CEO being equals is nonsense! I believe in having a clear strategy and carrying it through. Once a strategy is decided, continual analysis of what we're doing is not helpful.
2. True or false? (5)
a) CCG has its headquarters in London.
b) All the board members to whom a questionnaire was sent replied.
c) All the people who were interviewed completed a questionnaire.
d) The board members all come from companies whose shares are listed on the London stock market.
e) More chief executives than chairs were interviewed. 3. Make nouns from the adjectives that are used to describe Facilitators. (6)
aware _ _ _ _
open _ _ _ _
purposeful _ _ _ _
sensitiv e _ _ _ _
supportive _ _ _ _
tr _ _ _ 4. Match the expressions 1-6 with their meanings a-f, relating to Thinkers. (12)
1. They are likely to get their way on the big issues.
2. They can be a formidable combination with a chief executive, provided both agree on fundamentals.
3. Relationships will be more distant and based on respect.
4. penetrating understanding of the issues
5. strongly held (but not always disclosed) views
6. a recognition of private agendas
a) very good knowledge of the subjects
b) The chair and chief executive will work very well together, as long as they agree about basic policy.
c) Directors will understand each other's worth, without necessarily liking each other.
d) On important questions, what he wants to happen will happen.
e) opinions you really believe in, but don't always discuss with other people
f) an understanding that other people have their own priorities 5
Find expressions that mean (9)
a) when you support your organisation and do nothing to harm it (7 letters)
b) when you spend a lot of time understanding figures, facts, etc. (13,8)
c) when you put all your energy into the company you work for (10)
d) when you have a clear idea of what the future will be like (6)
e) the way you relate to different people (13)
f) strength of character (5, 2,11)
g) happening in the same way and continuing for a long time (10)
h) given in a strong and forceful way to show that it is important (8)
i) made completely involved in sth (8)
II. Directions: Items in this part are incomplete sentences. Following each of these sentences, (here are four
words or phrases. You should select the one word or phrase – (A), (B), (C), or (D) - that best completes the
1. _____________ dancer Isadora Duncan played a major role in the revolution in dance that took place in the
(A) Because the (B) The (C) She was a (D) Being a 2. Water pressure _____________ cracks open small rocks but also breaks great slabs of stone from the faces of
(A) either (B) not only (C) and so (D) moreover 3. _____________ types of guitars: acoustic and electric. (A) Basically, there are two (B) Two of the basic (C) Basically, two (D) They are two basic 4. Both longitude and latitude _____________ in degrees, minutes, and seconds. (A) measuring (B) measured (C) are measured (D) being measured 5. New words are constantly being invented _____________ new objects and concepts. (A) to describe (B) a description of (C) they describe (D) describe 6. Modern saw blades are coated with a special_____________ plastic. (A) reduction of friction (B) reduced-friction (C) friction is reduced (D) friction-reducing 7. Bricks baked in a kiln are much harder _____________ that are dried in the sun. (A) those (B) than do those (C) than those (D) ones 8. Exactly _____________ humans domesticated animals is not known. (A) how (B) by means of (C) if (D) by which
9. Jerome Kern's most famous work is Showboat,
_____________ most enduring musical comedies. (A) it is one of the finest (B) of the finest one (C) the finest one (D) one of the finest 10. _____________ snowfield on a mountain slope reaches a depth of about 100 feet, it begins to move slowly
(A) Whenever a (B) A (C) That a (D) Should a 11. Most comets have two kinds of tails, one made up of dust, _____________made up of electrically charged
(A) one another (B) the other (C) other ones (D) each other 12. By 1820, there were over sixty steamboats on the Mississippi River, _____________ were quite luxurious. (A) many of them (B) which many (C) many of which (D) many that 13. _____________ in 1772, Maryland's state capitol is still in use and is one of the most attractive public
(A) It was built
(C) To build it
14. Four miles off the southeastern coast of Massachusetts_____________, a popular summer resort.
(A) lies the island of Martha's Vineyard
(B) the island of Martha's Vineyard lies there
(C) does lie the island of Martha's Vineyard
(D) where the island of Martha's Vineyard lies
15. Copperplate, a highly ornate form of handwriting, is_____________ longer in common use.
The items in this part have four underlined words or phrases. You must identify the one underlined
expression – (A), (B), (C), or (D) - that must be changed for the sentence to be correct.
1. In an essay writing in 1779, Judith Sargeant Murray promoted the cause of women's education
2. A metallic object that is in contact with a magnet becomes a magnet themselves.
3. The change from summer to winter occurs very abrupt in the tundra regions of North America.
4. In outer space, spacecraft can be maneuvered by means small steering rockets.
5. Echoes occur when sound waves strike a smooth surface and bounces backwards.
6. A good carpentry must possess a wide variety of skills.
7. Grover Cleveland was the only American president which served two nonconsecutive terms.
8. The American soprano Mary Gardner, who had one of the greatest operatic voices of her era, retired at
9. On nights when is the sky clear and the air calm, the Earth's surface rapidly radiates heat into the
10. Dreams are commonly made up of both visual or verbal images.
11. The trap-door spider makes a hole in the ground, lines it with silk, and closing it with a hinged door.
12. Sleepiness is one symptom of hypothermia, the extreme lost of body heat.
13. The flute is the only woodwind instrument that is not done of wood.
14. F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby
is about the pursuit of wealthy, status, and love in the
15. Whenever there are red, orange, or brown coloring in sandstone, iron ore is probably present.
16. Feathers keep birds warmed and dry also enable them to fly.
17. Some species of penicillin mold are used to ripe cheeses.
18. In about 1920, experimental psychologists have devoted more research to learning than to any other
19. Natural asphalt lakes are find in many parts of the world.
20. All living creatures pass on inherited traits from one generation to other.
21. Many of the events that led up to the American Revolution took placed in Massachusetts.
22. Mass production is the manufacture of machineries and other articles in standard sizes and large
23. Not much people realize that apples have been cultivated for over 3,000 years.
24. The destructive force of running water depends entirely almost on the velocity of its flow.
25. The eastern bluebird is considered the most attractive bird native of North America by many bird-
V Join the halves: (20)
1. Widespread rumors of a hostile a) are a credit to its highly effective
take-over bid are certain PR department
2. The Account’s Department’s very b) have commented relations between
slow payment of invoices the two companies.
3. The long term contracts, which will c) its close relations with several major
run for the next five years, foreign investors have been jeopardized.
4. The excellent relations the company enjoys d) is insuring stormy relations with some of
with the local community the company’s suppliers.
5. As a result of the government’s e) to strain relations between the two leading
imposition of currency control, French software companies.
6. It’s been a lot of hard work, but she f) beginning to bear fruit
7. If anything goes smoothly, we g) came up trumps in the end.
8. At long last their hard work and investment h) can get results and work well under
9. What we are looking for is a candidate who i) seems to be really making a go of her
10). Nobody thought we’d clinch the deal but we j) Should be in New-York in plenty of
1. On a certain road, 10 percent of motorists exceed the poster speed limit and receive speeding tickets, but 20%
of the motorists who exceed the posted speed limit do not receive speeding tickets. What percent of the motorists on that road exceed the posted speed limit?
full of oil and drum Y, which has twice the capacity of drum X, is
drum X is poured into drum Y, then drum Y will be filled to what fraction of its capacity?
3. If the operation * is defined for all a and b by the equation a*b=
d) -2 e) -4 4. The sum of the digits of a two-digit number is 12, and the ten’s digit is one third the unit’s digit. What is the
5. Which one of the following could be the difference between two numbers both of which are divisible by 2,3,
a) 71 b) 72 c) 73 d) 74 e) 75 6. If 2<x<5 and 3<y<5, which of the following best describes x-y? a) -3<x-y<2 b) -3<x-y<5 c) 0<x-y<2 d) 3<x-y<5 e) 2<x-y<5
a) x+1 b) 1 c) x2-1 d) x-1 e) 2 8. If n is a number such that (-8)2n = 28+2n, then n=
c) 2 d) 4 e) 5 9. The average of five numbers is 6.9. If one of the numbers is deleted, the average of the remaining numbers is
4.4 What is the value of the number deleted?
a) 6.8 b) 7.4 c) 12.5 d) 16.9 e) 17.2 10. A town has a population growth rate of 10% per year, The population in 1990 was 2000. What was the
of all the students are taking a science course and
of all the student in the school are taking physics, how many students
<1, which of the following must be true?
III. c2+d2>1 a) I only b) II only c) I and II only d) II and III only e) I, II and III 13. If a is a positive integer, and if the unit’s digit of a2 is 9 and the unit’s digit of (a+1)2 is 4, what is the unit’s
a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 7 e) 9 14. The ratio, by volume of soap to alcohol to water in a certain solution is 2:50:100. The solution will be altered
so that the ratio of soap to alcohol is doubled while the ratio of soap to water is halved. If the altered solution will contain 100 cubic centimeters of a alcohol, how many cubic centimeters of water will it contain?
a) 50 b) 800 c) 400 d) 625 e) 200 15. Lucy invested $10 000 in a new mutual funds account exactly three years ago. The value of the account
increased by 10 percent during the first years, increased by 5 percent during the second year, and decreased by 10 percent during the third year. What is the value of the account today?
a) 10 350 b) 10 500 c) 10 395 d) 11 500 e) 12 705
16. If r and s are integers and rs+r is odd, which of the following must be even? a) r b) s c) r+s d) rs-r e) r2+s 17. If (4x)(2)y=16 and (5x)(5y)=125, then (x,y)= a) (1;2) b) (2;1) c) (1;1) d) (2;2) e) (1;3) 18. A riverboat leaves Mildura and travels upstream to Renmark at an average speed of 6 miles per hour, It returns
by the same route at an average speed of 9 miles per hour. What is its average speed for the round trip, in miles per hour?
a) 7.0 b) 7.2 c) 7.5 d) 7.8 e) 8.2 19. Working independently, Susan can perform a certain task in 6 hours and Tom can perform it in 7 hours. If
Susan and Tom work together at the task for 3 hours, at which point Susan leaves, how many hours will it take Tom to complete the task alone?
e) 1 20. Solution X is 25 percent mercury and solution Y is 10 percent mercury. If 12 ounces of solution X are added to
13 ounces of solution Y, approximately what percent of the resulting solution will be mercury?
1. Timed mating was set up by placing one male and two female C 57BL/6 mice 2. The female was then checked for a vaginal plug early the following morning. 3. Embryonic ages were determined as the time since the appearance of the copulative plug (the first day was determined as E0.5). 4. Pregnant female at the specified gestational age of 14.5 days (E14.5) were killed 5. The uteri were aseptica
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