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The school years: biosocial development

The School Years: Biosocial Development
A Healthy Time

„Middle childhood, ages 7 to 11, is generally a happy, healthy time of life
Size and Shape
„growth slows.
„Most 7-11 year olds gain 5-7 lbs.
„ and 2˝ per year Childhood Obesity „overweight and obese children =increasing. „Overweight children =at higher risk of health problems „suffer socially and academically
Causes of Childhood Obesity
„Genetic predisposition
…set point
„Environmental factors
… food
Puberty and Weight
„Overweight children experience puberty earlier.
„Early puberty has been associated with risk factors
Treatment of Childhood Obesity
„Change school lunch programs, vending machines, etc. Chronic Illness „About 13% of children have special health needs. „Asthma is chronic inflammation of the airways.
„It affects between 10% and 20% Possible Causes of Asthma „genes on chromosomes 2, 11, 12, 13, and 21 „exposure to allergens Prevention of Asthma „Clean air „Inhalers, medical treatment Make it Real: Special Needs „Do you know anyone who has special needs as a result of a physical, cognitive, or emotional disability?
…Examples: ADHD, autism, learning disability, physical disability, etc.
Children with Special Needs
„Children who require extra help in order to learn have “special needs.”
…Examples: pervasive developmental delays, learning disabilities, attention deficits, autism,
physical disability, emotional impairment, and more.
Pervasive Developmental Delays
„Pervasive developmental disorders are severe problems, such as autism, that affect many
aspects of a young child’s psychological growth, causing evident delay of speech, movement, or
social skills before age 6 years.
„Autism is a PDD characterized by an inability to relate to other people normally, including
extreme self-absorption, and an inability to learn normal speech.
„The level of severity of symptoms varies across individuals (e.g. Asperger syndrome
represents high functioning).
Symptoms of Autism
„Insistence on routine
Possible Causes of Autism
…Thimerosal, found in immunizations, has been repeatedly accused but consistently disproved as
a factor)
…Viruses, infections, pesticides, or drugs
„Better diagnosis today
Treatment of Autism
„Early intervention is beneficial
„One-on-one behavioral training
…teaching social play strategies and language skills
„Encouraging social connections
…Examples: rewards for eye contact, interacting
Treatment for Autism (cont.)
„This teacher is trying to facilitate eye contact and encourage this 4 year old child with autism to
Learning Disability
„A marked delay in a particular area of learning not associated with any physical handicap,
mental retardation, or unusually stressful home environment.
„Dyslexia = difficulty with reading
„Problem may involve auditory processing of sounds „Has a huge effect on self esteem Attention Disorders „ADD and ADHD are both neurological disorders involving difficulty screening out irrelevant
„Possible causes: abnormality in brain or neurotransmitters, or prenatal damage (teratogens),
genetic vulnerability (boys more susceptible), or postnatal damage (lead)
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
„May seem lost in thought, “spaced out” „Increased risk of developing conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
„Difficulty concentrating for more than a few minutes at a time: inattentive, impulsive,
„Increased risk of developing conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder
Treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorders
„Medication (e.g., Ritalin, Adderall, Strattera)
„Behavioral Modification
„Training for parents and teachers
Educating Children with Special Needs
„Least restrictive environment (LRE)— legally required school setting that offers children with
special needs as much freedom as possible to benefit from the instruction available to other
Educating Children with Special Needs (cont.)
„Children with special needs are guaranteed an Individual Education Plan (IEP).
…Legal document
…It specifies a series of educational goals, and services required
Educating Children with Special Needs (cont.)
„Mainstreaming—special needs kids in the general classroom
„Resource Room: separate room with a trained special-education teacher
„Inclusion: child in general classroom but with paraprofessional


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underStandInG and ManaGInG InterStItIal cyStItIS: a perSonalIZed approach J. curtis nickel Md Professor of Urology, Queen’s University at Kingston CanadaCIHR Canada Research Chair in Urologic Pain and InflammationKingston General Hospital, Kingston Ontario Canada K7L 2V7Phone: 613-548-2497Email: IntroductIon: cystitis are angry. Physicians managing continues to improve,

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