Common Cardiovascular Anomalies and Diseases Heart Attack:
This is a vascular disease of the heart characterized by inadequate blood supply to heart muscle leading to their damage and ultimate death.
This is a nervous disease of the heart in which the ventricles contract independent of the SA node. In this condition the heart usual y beats at a slower rate most of the time. Myocardial Infarction (MI):
• This is a vascular disease of the heart characterized by necrotic myocardial c h a n g e s f o l l o w i n g i n a d e q u a t e o r interrupted blood flow to the myocardium.
• It is most commonly caused by coronary i n s u f f i c i e n c y r e s u l t i n g f r o m atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.
• Myocardial infarction could be slowly progressive or acute (sudden) in nature.
• The necrotic myocardial tissue is usually replaced by fibrous tissue scar. Angina Pectoris: This is severe constricting pain or feeling of tightness in the chest. It is usually caused by arterial constriction due to:
1. Stress 2. Strenuous exercise after a heavy meal 3. Sudden exposure to a cold environment Angina pain is normally relieved by a few minutes of rest after it occurred It is also relieved by the administration of a vasodilator e.g. Sublingual Nitroglycerin which relaxes the coronary arteries. Angina pain is often less severe than the pain of myocardial infarction which is also not relieved Cardiac Functions and Ions
• Low Potassium and Calcium in blood depresses the heart while
• Excess of calcium could lead to sustained cardiac muscle contraction resulting in death (Death by lethal injection) SOME CARDIAC PARAMETERS • Heart rate (HR):
• Female - 72-80/min • Male – 64-72/min • Average – 75/min • Fetal heart rate = 140-160 • Abnormal Heart rate • Tachycardia = over 100/min • Bradycardia = below 60/min • Stroke Volume (SV) – 70ml (Same for right and left ventricles)
• Cardiac output – HR x SV =70 x 75 = 5252ml = approximately 5 litres.
• Systemic BP 120/80 mmHg
• Pulmonary BP 25/8 mmHg
• Therefore, Stroke volume = EDV-ESV= 120-50=70ml • Venous return is increased by:
1.Slow heart rate 2.Exercise
• Venous return increases EDV
• Afterload = Back pressure exerted by Arterial Blood. It is the pressure the ventricles must overcome before they could eject blood.
• It is equal to the diastolic pressure (80 or 8 mmHg) and impedes the ability of the ventricles to release blood.
• High afterload leads to high ESV but reduced SV
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