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PERU: CULTURE, HISTORY & WILDLIFE
NO. OF CREDITS:
5 QTR CREDITS
WA CLOCK HRS:
CHRIS WEBER, M.S.
MICHAEL THIBODEAU (ASSISTANT)
1826 SE 54TH AVE
PORTLAND OR, 97215
During a 19-day stay in Peru, we will study both the ruins, history, and culture of the Inca
civilization and the wildife of the Manu Biosphere Reserve. We will begin in Cuzco, the former capital of the Inca Empire where we will visit several Inca ruins and learn about their history, purpose, ceremonies, and architecture. In Cuzco’s museums and other buildings, we will discover more about Inca culture, natural history, artifacts, religion, and art. Then we will explore Andean villages in the beautiful Sacred Valley of the Incas to learn about traditional agriculture and crafts. From there, we will journey into the past, hiking on the Inca Trail to the mystical city of Machu Picchu. There we will explore the ruins and learn about its: rediscovery, cloud forest environment, stonework, and more. K-12 teachers in social studies, language arts, and science will be able to apply their experiences in developing and implementing across-the-curriculum teaching units.
Next the group will travel to the Manu Biosphere Reserve situated in the southwestern region of
the Amazon basin. It is the refuge of many endangered animals, including the jaguar (Panthera Onca),
black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), giant otter (pteronura Brasiliensis) and harpy eagle (Harpia Harpyja).
Manu has become famous for its possibilities to observe the flora and especially the fauna of the
Amazonian rainforest. We will be spending six days and five nights experiencing and learning about the
Manu's natural history. Please read through the important travel information on pages 5-10 of this
syllabus. LEARNING OUTCOMES:
As a result of taking of this course, you will be able to:
1. Describe the most current information on the significance of the ruins around Cuzco, in the
2. Experience and describe the ecosystems in southern Peru (temperate, cloud forest, highlands). 3. Provide an overview of the contributions of the Inca Empire. 4. Summarize the conquest of the Incas by the Spanish and its effects. 5. Summarize the rediscovery of Machu Picchu by Hiram Bingham. 6. Collect postcards, photos, and information (e.g., maps, brochures, etc.) for use in making your
lessons about culture and animal life of Peru come alive for students.
7. Identify the ecological levels of the Manu Biosphere Reserve: the puna, high altiude tundra-like
8. Observe different types of birds, mammals, reptiles, and insects. 9. Learn about jungle flora. 10. Synthesize the concepts and information you learned into a unit of study integrating your
experiences, readings, and the lecture/discussion sessions.
REQUIREMENTS FOR COURSE CREDIT:
Following are general course requirements weighted for determining the granting of university credit.
Antioch University Seattle requires a 75% or better to issue credit and 85% or better at the 500 level.
1) Attendance and active participation at all class sessions.
2) Reading of articles, handouts, books or texts.
3) Satisfactory completion of all outside assignments.
400 & 500 LEVEL OUTSIDE ASSIGNMENTS
1. Create a photo essay of the Inca Trail and Machu Picchu, or a daily written journal of your trip 5-6
2. Make a map showing the major geographic (showing rivers, mountain ranges, valleys,
ecosystems, and so on) archaeological, and historical features, along with points of interests pointed out during the course.
3. Prepare a teaching unit consisting of 4-5 lessons or activities that can be used in your classroom.
All units will include: a) curriculum topics to be integrated, b) learner outcomes, c) description of assessment tools you will use, and d) how it aligns with state, district or school learning standards.
4. Write 2-3 page summary paper about one or two aspects of the Inca civilization (see list below).
Summarize your findings based on course lecture notes, experience, and readings. The readings will be sent to you by the instructor before the trip.
Possible topics for paper include Peruvian: • agriculture • religion • ceremonies and rituals • road building • textiles, clothing • knowledge and practice of medicine • bridge building • foods and drinks • musical instruments, and dances • tombs, burial rites and ceremonies • stonework • festivals and sacrifices • everyday life • child rearing and/or education • vast reaches of the Inca empire • handicrafts • architecture • animals of Peruvian rain and cloud forests • plant life of the Peruvian rain and cloud forests
5. As an alternate to number 4, you may produce a 2-3 page book report from one of the books
listed in the Course Bibliography. Include analysis of what was discussed in the book, it’s strengths and weaknesses, and what you learned from the book that integrated with what you experienced on the trip.
500 LEVEL OUTSIDE ASSIGNMENT
6. In addition to the 400 level assignment do the following:
Develop a PowerPoint presentation, slide show, and/or electronic documentary or video incorporating information from the trek to Machu Picchu, tours of Cuzco, and rain forest trip to be used as part of the lesson plans for your curriculum.
Write a 2-3 page paper telling about what you have learned. Relate how this information could be further used in developing curriculum or materials.
ASSIGNMENT DUE DATE & FORMAT:
Assignments are due no later than four weeks after the conclusion of the course.
Submit written materials in word-processed or typed format and double-spaced.
Send them either via U.S. mail or Email, to the instructor’s address listed on page 1 of this syllabus.
INSTRUCTOR EVALUATION OF WORK:
Please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope if you would like to receive instructor comments on
Class readings (These will be sent to you by the instructor before the trip.)
For one reading, choose a book from the bibliography.
Another book of your choice about the Incas that is relevant to your needs or interests, with the
instructor’s approval. MATERIALS FEE:
$10.00 for class hand-outs is to be paid to the instructor.
QUALIFICATIONS FOR TEACHING THIS COURSE:
Chris Weber, M.S
. Education. Chris Weber has taught both middle and elementary grade school
students in Portland for more than twenty-five years. He has trekked in Peru on the Inca Trail and has led
treks in the Himalayas. Chris will use an outstanding Peruvian adventure company to supply the class
with guides, porters, tents, and so on. Having trekked in India, Nepal, Chile, and Peru, he will show you
how to make the most out of this incredible learning experience and ensure that your trek is a safe one,
too. Michael Thibodeau
, is an experienced trekker, who has trekked with Chris Weber in Peru and in India.
He will be assisting on this course and providing valuable practical knowledge about our experiences.
1) The awarding of Clock Hours requires full participation in all activities during travel. 2) Early registration recommended as airfare costs increases near travel date. 3) Travel costs from $2500. Travel costs will be lower if the class can book tickets as a group
through Top Destination Travel. The instructor will be happy to help coordinate travel arrangements.
4) Before registering, contact Chris Weber for more information at 503/232-7737 or Email:
PERU: CULTURE, HISTORY & WILDLIFE
Bingham, Hiram. Lost City of the Incas. Sterling Publications, 2002 A special illustrated edition of Hiram Bingham's classic work captures all the magnificence and mystery of the amazing sites he uncovered. In the earliest days of the 20th century, Bingham ventured into the wild and then unknown country of the Eastern Peruvian Andes. In 1911, he came upon the fabulous Inca city that ultimately made him famous: Machu Picchu. Cheshire, Gerard. Peruvian Wildlife: A Visitor’s Guide to the High Andes. Bradt Guides. 2007 The High Andes region encompasses Machu Picchu, Cusco, and the Sacred Valley of the Incas, along with the Inca Trail and other landmark sites. In the north, the trekkers' and climbers' paradise of the Cordilleras Blanca and Huayhuash is almost as popular, as are the mountains of Ecuador and Bolivia which are included here. This new guide is the ideal companion for trekkers or sightseers, providing concise coverage of the unique plants and animals they are most likely to encounter. D’Altroy, Terence. The Incas (Peoples of America). Blackwell Publishers, 2002 The Incas is a thorough description of the land and people of the region, including groups and empires that preceded the Inca. Written sources for the information are analyzed for their contemporaneity, reliability, and bias, while archaeological data are used to clarify these accounts where possible. The author discusses not only the rise and fall of the empire but the social order and political and religious ideology as well. Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. Harvest Books, 2003 This compelling, authoritative account removes the Incas from the realm of prehistory and legend and shows the reality of their struggle against the Spanish invasion. Drawing on rediscovered sources and a firsthand knowledge of the Incan terrain, Hemming vividly describes postconquest Peru and the integration of the Incas into the Spanish society, refuting many misconceptions about the decline of the Incan empire. Pearson, David L. Peru: (The Travellers’ Wildlife Guides) Academic Press, 2000 From the world-famous Machu Picchu Incan ruins high in the Andes Mountains, to Lake Titicaca in southern Peru, to the Iquitos area of Amazonian northeastern Peru, travellers want to experience tropical forests and other stunning habitats and catch glimpses of exotic wildlife. In this book is all the information you need to find, identify, and learn about Peru's magnificent animal and plant life. Thomson, Hugh. The White Rock: An Exploration of the Inca Heartland. Overlook Hardcover, 2003. Part travelog, part history lesson, this narrative by documentary filmmaker Thomson (Out of India, Great Journeys: Mexico) recounts a successful expedition he led in 1982 to "refind" Llactapata, the "lost city of the Incas," and to explore other Inca sites spanning three countries. Among pages of encounters with flora, fauna, and fermented beverages, Thomson provides a good dose of colorful Peruvian history. Wright, Ruth M. and Zegarra, Aldredo Valencia. The Machu Picchu Guidebook: A Self Guided Tour. Johnson Publishing, 2000 Machu Picchu is one of the most stunning archaeological sites on Earth. Located in the heart of the Andes in Peru, this five-centuries-old Incan relic attracts some 300,000 tourists yearly. Yet the significance of the site itself is difficult to unravel without a lot of personal knowledge or a comprehensive guidebook. Wright, who has studied the site for 25 years and has worked at Machu Picchu since 1994, and Zegarra (anthropology and archaeology, Univ. of Cuzco) have teamed up to produce a handy book for visitors who wish to guide themselves at their own pace through the site.
PERU: CULTURE, HISTORY & WILDLIFE
THE FOLLOWING PAGES CONTAIN THESE ITEMS
DETAILED ITINERARY; JUNGLE TRIP; & WHAT TO BRING
Please read through these pages of important information ASAP, and contact me with questions.
TRIP LENGTH: 19 DAYS
Day 1 - 2:
Fly to Lima and then to Cuzco Day 3:
Trek the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu; explore culture and ruins Day 9:
Fly Boca Manu and begin exploring Manu Biosphere Reserve.
Manu Biosphere Reserve. Flight to Lima. Day 19:
PERU: CULTURE, HISTORY & WILDLIFE
DAY 1 ~
Fly to Lima
Chris Weber, group leader, will help coordinate your flight prior to leaving, arrange for a taxi to your hotel
and meet you at a comfortable hotel where you will stay overnight.
DAY 2 ~ Cuzco (
We will be here for several days to enjoy all that Cuzco has to offer and to acclimatize to
the 11,000 feet altitude for our trek.)
In the morning, we will take a flight to Cuzco, where a travel agent will meet us in the baggage
claim area at the airport. Transfer to the hotel. Brief guided tour of the city with group to show you where
key buildings are located. Charming red-roofed Cuzco is the ancient capital of the vast Inca Empire. The
Spanish conquistadors destroyed significant portions of the Inca civilization while leaving their mark on
Cuzco. Ornate cathedrals, adobe walls, carved balconies, hidden courtyards, and cobblestone streets
add to the historic richness of the ancient Inca city. Choose from many fine restaurants for dinner, then
stroll around the central square where colorful Quechuan handicrafts are offered for sale.
DAY 3 ~ Sacred Valley, Pisac
The tour to the Sacred Valley includes:
• Pisac ruins
• Pisac market
Drive by van to the Sacred Valley of the Incas. The valley has a Mediterranean climate and rich history;
its hills are studded with ruins and a few villages. Some 12 miles of swift water and mild rapids carry us
toward Pisac, where a small village and fine ruins overlook the river. After lunch, we explore the ruins.
Pisac was one of the largest fortress-city complex of the Incas (and one of the largest of ancient
America). High up on a ridge overlooking the valley, the ruins extend from a fortress to a temple complex
where we can see some of the finest Inca stonework in existence. Terraces extend up from the river
perhaps 2,000 feet and we’ll descend through a network of stairs, walkways, tunnels, and temples. The
remainder of the day is free to rest and relax at a hotel with its grounds and gardens grazed by llamas, or
to explore on your own. (Lectures at Pisac )
DAY 4 ~ Trek Briefing and Hiking or Horseback riding tour of Nearby Inca Ruins
We meet for an orientation briefing by our guide. Lunch is on your own or with the group. Afternoon hiking
tour of the nearby Inca ruins, including Qenko, with its zigzag channels, the red fort called Puca Pucara,
the ceremonial bath of Tambo Machay, and the majestic Sacsayhuaman fortress, most impressive of
them all with its perfectly fitted, mortarless stone blocks and zigzag walls. The evening is free to relax or
explore on your own.
The rest of the day is open to explore the city’s fascinating streets, palaces and temples. Many of the
streets retain the stone Incan walls of the former palaces which made up the heart of the city. In the
afternoon, you are free to make last minute trek preparations and do some shopping. Anything you do not
need to take on the trek, you can store in a safe storage at the hotel.
DAY 5 ~ Visit Ollantaytambo and Begin Machu Picchu Trek
Morning visit to the Ollantaytambo ruins, one of the few Inca towns that have survived much as the Incas
designed it several hundred years ago. Here we can see Inca canchas, enclosures of multi-family living
quarters that share just one exit to the street, ingenious stonework, cobbled streets, and an extensive
communal water system that survives to this day. Continue to the Inca Trailhead where first we stop for
lunch before beginning our hike. The first day’s route is mainly level as we hike along the turbulent
Vilcanota River, with magnificent views to Nevado Veronica (5,900 m/19,000 ft). Explore the Inca city of
Llactapata and continue up the Cusichaca River to camp Crossing a bridge, we visit Llactapata, an
extensive Inca complex of buildings, irrigations canals, and agricultural terraces, then continue a long
gradual ascent from the Urubamba River. (Lectures at Ollantaytambo and Llactapata) DAY 6 ~ Cross the Warmiwanusqa Pass
Hike steeply through three vegetation and climatic zones over the Warmiwanusqa Pass ("pass of the
dead woman"-13,776'), the first pass and highest point on the Inca Trail. From the pass, there are
wonderful views of the surrounding snow-covered peaks. Descend to Pacamayo (11,800'). (5 hours
DAY 7 ~ Phuyupatamarca
A steady climb takes us over Runkuraqay Pass (12,900'), with commanding views back toward
Warmiwanusqa. Descend to the remarkably situated ruins at Sayacmarca, a fortress city located on an
unassailable promontory between two valleys. (This is an area where overgrown Inca ruins are still being
uncovered.) After a picnic lunch, we hike across a third (and last) pass to camp at Phuyupatamarca
(“town at the edge of the clouds”) at 11,906 feet. Phuyupatamarca has remarkable views of the Urubamba
Valley and interesting ruins lie just below the campsite. The afternoon is free to explore the area. (6 hours
hiking.) (Lectures at Sayacmarca and Phuyupatamarca) DAY 8 ~ At mysterious Machu Picchu
From Phuyupatamarca we descend steeply to the jungle-bound ruins of Winaywayna (“forever young”),
perched on a promontory above a gorgeous waterfall and featuring a series of ceremonial baths.
Continue to Intipunku (“gate of the sun”) at about 9,400 feet, the original entrance to Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu, nestled between striking peaks high above the Urubamba Valley, exists as an
incomparably well-reconstructed ruin of staircases, terraced hillsides, altars, temples, fountains, and
vistas. We should arrive by early morning, with time to get oriented and begin exploring the ruins. Dinner
and overnight at a hotel, located in the small town of Aguas Calientes on the banks of the Urubamba
River. (5 hours hiking.) (Lecture at Machu Picchu)
DAY 9 ~ Machu Picchu and return to Cuzco
We have the early morning to continue exploring the sprawling ruins before the train arrives with day
visitors. Those who like can climb Huayna Picchu (9,460') for dramatic vistas of the ruins, the Urubamba
Valley, and the Cordillera Vilcabamba, the Temple of the Moon, or walk out to see the "Inca Bridge," an
ancient drawbridge leading to the jungle. Lunch at the Machu Picchu Ruinas Hotel. Descend by bus
around 3:00 p.m. to catch the train to Cuzco (about a 4-hour ride). DAY 10-12 ~ Shopping in Cuzco, Exploring nearby region, relaxing, and making Manu Biosphere
SAS Travel PROGRAM “MANU TAPIR”
in the Manu Biosphere Reserve
6 days / 5 nights (in & out by aircraft)
The advantage of this programme is that with only 6 days you spend 3 nights within the protected
reserve zone. You also visit the famous Macaw Lick at Blanquillo and as we continue on to Puerto
Maldonado to depart from the Jungle you have the option to fly back to Cusco or directly to Lima on the
The Manu Biosphere Reserve, situated in the remote southwestern region of the Amazon basin, is the
largest and definitely the only untouched reserve in the neotropics. This unique reserve covers an area of
one million eight hundred thousand hectares of undisturbed and pristine forest with the greatest bio-
diversity on the earth. For that reason it was declared a world heritage site in 1987 by the international
Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Starting from the eastern slope of the Andes, the biosphere protects one of the planets most important
wildlands. It is the refuge of many endangered animals, including the jaguar (Panthera Onca), black
caiman (Melanosuchus niger), giant otter (pteronura Brasiliensis) and harpy eagle (Harpia Harpyja). Manu
has become famous for its possibilities to observe the flora and especially the fauna of the Amazonian
rainforest. Manu contains around 1000 species of birds (including seven species of colourful macaws),
thousands of species of plants, 13 species of monkeys and hundreds of mammals.
The majority of Manu is tropical rainforest, but it also includes three other highly distinct ecological levels:
the puna, high altitude tundra-like area; the mysterious cloud forest with its little studied ecosystem and
the mountain rainforest.
Day 13 ~
AM Transfer from hotel to Airport for flight to Boca Manu.
A tour assistant will meet you in the airport and take you by small boat to Boca Manu to join for lunch with
the rest of the group who have come this far by Land and river. Continuing the tour to the Tourist Zones
of Manu National Park, we now travel up the Manu River, at least 4-5 hours, carefully searching for more
wildlife. Today we hope you will see many more different species of birds and animals like White
Caimans, the Capybara, (world’s largest rodent) brilliant birds and on an especially lucky day, adult Black
Caiman or even a pair of Jaguar.
By late afternoon, we arrive at the river edge of Lake Salvador. Usually we stay at our Renaco Tented
Camp. Normally we have time for hikes around dinner and in the evening. In our campsite you'll find
platform shelters for your camping equipment, a general area for meals and socializing, showers and nice
toilets. If impossible to stay at Renaco Tented Camp we use Matchiguenka Lodge which includes the
same amenities while still rustic, cozy and intimate in its surroundings of the Jungle of Manu. Exclusively
managed by indigenous Matchiguenka, original caretakers of the Manu wilderness. Day 14 ~
Early walk searching for wildlife is available or simply enjoying the sounds of the awakening
jungle to hike after breakfast. A trail system present in the area of Salvador is very impressive, where one
can observe different types of animals; birds, mammals, reptiles, etc.
For the afternoon we have the option to visit a tower where it is possible to see the canopy and its fauna.
In our night walk (optional for those who don't want to look for Scorpions, Tarantulas and other creepy
crawlies), well be accompanied by the music of the jungle frogs, toads, crickets and owls.
Day 15 ~
Considered the most dynamic of the places that we will visit. We explore the Lakes Otorongo
and Salvador, the most important lakes where we can find a huge diversity of animals and flora. With our
guide's explanation we will learn the secrets of the tropical forest. We go into the forest along observation
trails to appreciate 13 diverse species of monkeys and others incredible animals characteristic of this
place and to understand the importance of preserving our planet. Following our guide‚s indications and
with luck we will be able to see some big vertebrates such as the Giant Otters), Tapir and some
Peccaries. We spend the third night at Salvador Lake, where we will be entertained with the incredible
stories of our guide and crew about this unforgettable place.
Day 16 ~
Very early in the morning we leave Lake Salvador to continue our adventure traveling down the
Manu river to reach Boca Manu (approx 4 hrs) On this day it is still possible to find the famous Jaguar) as
we search along the beaches to find them perhaps resting placidly after their lunch. Day 17 ~
5 am. Wake up to depart for the amazing spectacle of the Macaw Lick walls. We can
appreciate this from our hiding place a great quantity of Macaws, Parrots, and Parakeets, flock to the
huge clay walls to feed on the clay containing minerals, which absorbs the toxins they have eaten in the
seeds of fruits. Then we continue the trip leaving from Blanquillo at around 9 am. By boat for 2 hours
arriving to the community at Colorado. From here on to Puerto Carlo is 1 hour in a van or 4x4 track
depending on the size of the group. We cross the river Inambari to Santa Rosa 15 minutes and from here
continue in transport approx 4 hours to Puerto Maldonado where we spend the night. Anticipated arrival is
around 6 pm. .accomodation in Puerto Maldonado.
But if we arrive earlier there is the possibility to stay at Tambo Jungle Lodge, about 45 minutes further
down the down Madre de Dios River by boat.
In the afternoon we arrive to the area of Blanquillo where the macaw clay lick is. A nice location will offer a
Day 18 ~
Early Breakfast and preparation for flight from Puerto Maldonado back to Lima. On this day we
have the opportunity to visit the Butterfly green house, after that directly back to the airport for your flight. Day 19
~ Flight to the U.S.
MACHU PICCHU PACKING LIST
WHAT TO BRING
Medicine (mysoline, aspirant, pills, etc)
Toiletry bag + items (toothpaste, toothpicks, floss, hand cleaner,
Water purification tablets or water filter
Broken-in hiking boots
First aid kit (Dr. Soles blister aide, toenail clippers,
Camera + film (slide file is great for use in slide shows to classes)
For The Jungle Trip You Will Need The Following
Check with your doctor about necessary vaccinations and medications (e.g., malaria pills and yellow fever)
Lightweight, tight weave long cotton pants & long-sleeved cotton shirts preferably green or tan.
A fleece and a windbreaker are advisable for cool evenings.
Light raingear (poncho) for sudden downpours; sneakers (covered shoes) or other low heeled walking shoes are essential; light hat, suntan lotion; insect repellent is a must, with deet
A small rucksack, a water bottle, good binoculars and a flashlight or headlight, pocketknife and a few energy snacks will be very useful. Personal gear, toiletries, cameras, 400 exp film, photocopy of passport, yellow fever certificate and extra money in plastic bags.
Photography: we recommend that you use film of 400 ASA or higher for the darker areas under the canopy. Normal 100 ASA can be used when out on the river or lakes. Protect your equipment against moisture with waterproof cases.
Depigmentation therapies for normal skin in vitiligouniversalis†Dermatology Department and ‡Vitiligo Research Chair, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia*Correspondence: K.M. AlGhamdi. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgIf vitiligo involves most of the body, it might be easier to depigment the normal remaining skin rather than to attemptrepigmentation. We reviewed the liter
December 17, 2008- The day, at the age of 38, I was told that I had breast cancer and my life was changed forever. Surprisingly my cancer diagnosis, although terrifying in the beginning, has actually made me stronger and happier in a lot of ways. My diagnosis was a result of my normal, yearly mammogram. Due to my strong family history of breast cancer, I had my baseline mammogram at 30 and the