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The official text of the Prohibited List
shall be maintained by WADA
and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2014
The 2014 Prohibited List 11 September 2013
THE 2014 PROHIBITED LIST
WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
Valid 1 January 2014
In accordance with Article 4.2.2 of the World Anti-Doping Code, all Prohibited Substances
shall be considered as “SpecifiedSubstances” except Substances in classes S1, S2, S4.4, S4.5,S6.a, and Prohibited Methods
M1, M2 and M3.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES
(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (e.gdrugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued, designer drugs, substances approved only for veterinary use) is prohibited at all times.
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
(5Į-androst-1-ene-3ȕ,17ȕ-diol ); 1-androstenedione
(estr-4-ene-ǃǃ-diol ); bolasterone;
17ȕ-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol
fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol
methyl[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3',4':2,3]-5Į-androstan-ǃ-ol); gestrinone; 4-
one); metenolone; methandriol; methasterone
4-en-3-one); methyltestosterone; metribolone
hydroxy-17Į-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one); mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-
(estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol;
norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone;
androstane); quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone; 1-testosterone
and other substances with a similar chemical structure or
similar biological effect(s).
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously:
(dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA, ǃ-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one);
and their metabolites and isomers, including but not limited to:
5Į-androstane-3Į,17Į-diol; 5Į-androstane-3Į,17ȕ-diol; 5Į-androstane-
3ȕ,17Į-diol; 5Į-androstane-3ȕ,17ȕ-diol; androst-4-ene-3Į,17Į-diol;
androst-4-ene-3Į,17ȕ-diol; androst-4-ene-3ȕ,17Į-diol; androst-5-ene-
3Į,17Į-diol; androst-5-ene-3Į,17ȕ-diol; androst-5-ene-3ȕ,17Į-diol;
ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone;
etiocholanolone; 3Į-hydroxy-5Į-androstan-17-one; 3ȕ-hydroxy-5Į-
androstan-17-one; 7Į-hydroxy-DHEA ; 7ȕ-hydroxy-DHEA ; 7-keto-DHEA;
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone,
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is ordinarily produced by the body naturally.
The following substances, and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s), are prohibited:
1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents [
e.g. erythropoietin (EPO),
darbepoetin (dEPO), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers,
methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA), peginesatide
2. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
and their releasing factors;
4. Growth Hormone (GH)
and its releasing factors and Insulin-like
Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1).
In addition, the following growth factors are prohibited
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF),
Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
(PDGF), Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
as well as any
other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein
synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative
capacity or fibre type switching;
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists, including all optical isomers (e.g. d-
) where relevant,are prohibited except inhaled salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours), inhaled formoterol (maximum delivered dose 54 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regimen.
The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL or formoterol in excess of 40 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding
unless the Athlete
proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of the therapeutic inhaled dose up to the maximum indicated above.
S4. HORMONE AND METABOLIC MODULATORS
1. Aromatase inhibitors
including, but not limited to: aminoglutethimide,
(androstatrienedione), 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo),
exemestane, formestane, letrozole, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)
including, but not
limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances
including, but not limited to:
clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s)
including, but not limited, to:
5. Metabolic modulators:
b) Peroxisome Proliferator $FWLYDWHG 5HFHSWRU į 33$5į DJRQLVWV
HJ *: 33$5į-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis
agonists (e.g. AICAR)
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include:Diuretics, desmopressin, plasma expanders (
administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch
and other substances with similar biological effect(s).
Local administration of felypressin in dental anaesthesia is not prohibited.
Diuretics include:Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlortalidone,
etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone,
e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide),
, vaptans (
and other substances with a similar
chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) (except drospirenone, pamabromand topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).
The use In-
as applicable, of any quantity of a substance subject to threshold limits (i.e. formoterol, salbutamol, cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine) in conjunction with a diuretic or other masking agent requires the deliverance of a specific Therapeutic Use Exemption for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or other masking agent.
M1. MANIPULATION OF BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS
The administration or reintroduction of any quantity of autologous, allogenic (homologous) or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origininto the circulatory system.
Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including,but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
Any form of intravascular manipulation of the blood or blood components by physical or chemical means.
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples
collected during Doping Control
. These include but are not limited to urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50 mL per 6 hour periodexcept for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations.
M3. GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:
The transfer of polymers of nucleic acids or nucleic acid analogues;
The use of normal or genetically modified cells.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
In addition to the categories S0 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above,
the following categories are prohibited In-Competition:
All stimulants, including all optical isomers (e.g. d-
) where relevant, are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2014 Monitoring Program*.
Adrafinil; amfepramone; amfetamine; amfetaminil; amiphenazole;
benfluorex; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex; cocaine;
cropropamide; crotetamide; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine;
fenproporex; fonturacetam [4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon)];
furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb; metamfetamine(d-);
p-methylamphetamine; modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine;
phenmetrazine; phentermine; prenylamine; prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance.
Benzfetamine; cathine**; cathinone and its analogues (
Į- pyrrolidinovalerophenone); dimethylamphetamine;
ephedrine***; epinephrine**** (adrenaline); etamivan; etilamfetamine;
etilefrine; famprofazone; fenbutrazate; fencamfamin; heptaminol;
hydroxyamfetamine (parahydroamphetamine); isometheptene;
levmetamfetamine; meclofenoxate; methylenedioxymethamphetamine;
methylephedrine***; methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine);
methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine; octopamine; oxilofrine
(methylsynephrine); pemoline; pentetrazol; phenpromethamine;
propylhexedrine; pseudoephedrine*****; selegiline; sibutramine;
strychnine; tenamfetamine (methylenedioxyamphetamine);
and other substances with a similar chemical
structure or similar biological effect(s).
* The following substances included in the 2014 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, nicotine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances
is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5
micrograms per milliliter.
*** Each of ephedrine
is prohibited when its concentration
in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
**** Local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) of epinephrine
) or co-administration with local anaesthetic agents is not prohibited.
is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater
than 150 micrograms per milliliter.
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its
derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone,
oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Natural (e.g. cannabis, hashish, marijuana
) or synthetic delta 9-
(THC) and cannabimimetics (e.g. “Spice”, JWH018,
) are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous,intramuscular or rectal routes.
SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR
) is prohibited In-Competition
only, in the following sports.
Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping
violation threshold is equivalent to a blood alcohol concentration of 0.10 g/L.
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition
only, in the following sports.
Archery (WA) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition
Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition
Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol,
carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol,
metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
Neuroscience Letters 380 (2005) 346–347 A response to Granqvist et al. “Sensed presence and mys- We are assuming that they followed our usual protocol and tical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by verified the presence of the field and the appropriate acoustic the application of transcranial weak magnetic ﬁelds” signature (timing) of the field before each sub
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