Microsoft word - ch 02 ssm 1-2 rev.doc

Chemical Foundations
bonds increases the order and therefore decreases the entropy (S becomes more negative). Less energy is required to form noncovalent bonds than covalent bonds, and the bonds that stick the Stereoisomers are compounds that have the same gecko’s feet to the smooth surface need to be molecular formula but are mirror images of each formed and broken many times as the animal other. Many organic molecules can exist as moves. Since van der Waals interactions are so stereoisomers because of two different possible weak, there must be many points of contact (a orientations around an asymmetric carbon atom large surface area) yielding multiple van der Waals (e.g. amino acids). Because stereoisomers differ in interactions between the septae and the smooth their three dimensional orientation and because biological molecules interact with one another based on precise molecular complementarity, stereoisomers often react with different molecules, 2a. These are likely to be hydrophilic amino acids, or react differently with the same molecules. and in particular, negatively charged amino acids (aspartate and glutamate), which would have an The compound is guanosine triphosphate (GTP). 2b. Like the phospholipid bilayer itself, this portion of Although the guanine base is found in both DNA the protein is likely to be amphipathic, with hydrophobic amino acids in contact with the fatty and RNA, the sugar is a ribose sugar because of acyl chains and hydrophilic amino acids in contact the 2′ hydroxyl group. Therefore, GTP is a component of RNA only. GTP is an important 2c,d. Since both the cytosol and extracellular space are At least three properties contribute to this aqueous environments, hydrophilic amino acids structural diversity. First, monosaccharides can be joined to one another at any of several hydroxyl groups. Second, the C-1 linkage can have either an At pH = 7.0, the net charge is –1 because of the α or a β configuration. Third, extensive branching negative charge on the carboxyl residue of glutamate (E). After phosphorylation by a tyrosine kinase, two additional negative charges (because In the acidic pH of a lysosome, ammonia is of attachment of phosphate residues to tyrosines converted to ammonium ion. Ammonium ion is (Y)) would be added. Thus, the net charge would be –3. The most likely source of phosphate is ATP unable to traverse the membrane because of its since the attachment of inorganic phosphate (P positive charge and is trapped within the lysosome. The accumulation of ammonium ion to tyrosine is energetically highly unfavorable, but decreases the concentration of protons within when coupled to the hydrolysis of the high-energy lysosomes and therefore elevates lysosomal pH. At phosphoanhydride bond of ATP, the overall neutral pH, ammonia has little, if any, tendency to protonate to ammonium ion and thus has no effect on cytosolic pH. Disulfide bonds are formed between two cysteine residue side chains. The formation of disulfide straight chain. There is no such kink in a trans unsaturated fatty acyl chain. Since 90% of L binds R, the concentration of LR at equilibrium is 0.9(1 × 10−3M) = 9 × 10−4 M. The 13. Glutamate is the amino acid that undergoes concentration of free L at equilibrium is the 10% g-carboxylation, resulting in the formation of a of L that remains unbound, 1 × 10−4 M. The host of blood clotting factors. Warfarin inhibits concentration of R at equilibrium is (5 × 10−2 M) g-carboxylation of glutamate. Thus, blood – (9 × 10−4 M) = 4.91 × 10−2 M. Therefore, clotting is severely compromised. Patients prone [LR]/[L][R] = 9 × 10−4 M/ ((1 × 10−4 M) (4.91 × to forming clots (thrombi) in blood vessels might be prescribed warfarin in order to prevent an embolism, which would result if the clot dislodged and blocked another vessel elsewhere in The equilibrium constant is unaffected by the the body). Patients at risk for heart disease due to blockages in the coronary arteries are also often prescribed this drug. 10. The pH of cytosol is 7.2, which is the pKa for the Therefore, phosphoric acid will exist as a mixture of H phosphoric acid equals the optimal pH of cytosol, phosphoric acid serves as a biological buffer to help the cell maintain a constant pH. 11. G = Gº′+ RTln [products]/[reactants] For this reaction, G = −1000 cal/mol + [1.987 cal/(degree·mol) × (298 degrees) × ln (0.01 M/ (0.01 M × 0.01 M))]. G = −1000 cal/mol + 2727 cal/mol = 1727 cal/mol To make this reaction energetically favorable, one could increase the concentration of reactants relative to products such that the term RTln [products]/[reactants] becomes smaller than 1000 cal/mol. One might also couple this reaction to an energetically favorable reaction. 12. The presence of one or more carbon-carbon double bonds is indicative of an unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acid. The term saturated refers to the fact that all carbons, except the carbonyl carbon, have four single bonds. In a cis unsaturated fatty acid the carbon atoms flanking the double bond are on the same side, thus introducing a kink in the otherwise flexible



Read Cussler Ch. 5-6 Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 5 Problem 6 Problem 7 The bioavailability of drugs delivered orally is often low. Following absorption from the digestive tract into the blood, many drugs are quickly converted by the liver to an inactive form before they can reach the rest of the circulation. One way to circumvent


Preventive Effects of Rosiglitazone on Restenosis after Coronary Stenting in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Donghoon Choi, MD, PhD Cardiology Division Yonsei University College of Medicine, Background 1. Cardiovascular disease is one of the important leading cause of deaths in Type 2 diabetic patients. 2. As a result of dramatic increase in implantation numbers, in

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