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Microsoft word - grade 6 science sol fact sheet june 2003.doc

GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET

6.1
STRAND: SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION, REASONING, AND LOGIC
This strand represents a set of inquiry skills that defines what a student should be able to
do when conducting activities and investigations. The various skill categories are
described in the “Investigate and Understand” section of the Standards of Learning, and
the skills in science standards 6.1 represent more specifically what a student should be
able to do as a result of science experiences in sixth grade. Across the grade levels the
skills in the “Scientific Investigation, Reasoning, and Logic” strand form a near
continuous sequence of investigative skills. (Please note Appendix, “Science Skills,
Scope, & Sequence.”) It is important that the classroom teacher understands how the
skills in standard 6.1 are a key part of this sequence (i. e., K.1, K.2, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, and
5.1). The sixth grade curriculum should ensure that skills from preceding grades are
continuously reinforced and developed.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD:
The skills described in standard 6.1 are intended to define the "investigate" component of
all of the other sixth grade standards (6.2 - 6.9). The intent of standard 6.1 is that
students will continue to develop a range of inquiry skills and achieve proficiency with
those skills in the context of the concepts developed at the sixth grade. Standard 6.1 does
not require a discrete unit on scientific investigation because the inquiry skills that make
up the standard should be incorporated in all the other sixth grade standards. It is also
intended that by developing these skills, students will achieve greater understanding of
scientific inquiry and the nature of science, as well as more fully grasp the content-related
concepts in the standards.

OVERVIEW:

The concepts developed in this standard include the following: • To communicate an observation accurately, one must provide critical detail of exactly what is being observed. Using that information, students will be able to definitively differentiate between or among similar objects and/or organisms. • In an effective classification system, accurate comparisons and contrasts are • Systematic investigations require accurate measurements; however in the absence of precision tools, observers must record careful estimations. • Scale models must maintain relative values of size and/or quantity in order to maintain the integrity of the object or topic being modeled. • An experiment is a structured test of a hypothesis. A hypothesis is stated in terms • A scientific prediction is a forecast about what may happen in some future situation. It is based on the application of scientific principle and factual GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
information. An inference is a conclusion based on evidence about events that have already occurred. • Accurate observations and evidence are necessary to draw realistic and plausible • In order to conduct an experiment, one must recognize all of the potential • In a scientific investigation, data should be collected, recorded, analyzed, and reported using appropriate metric measurement. • In a scientific investigation, data should be organized and communicated through appropriate graphical representation (graphs, charts, tables, and diagrams). • Models provide a way of visually representing abstract concepts. The use of models permits students to order events or processes. • Patterns discerned from direct observations can be the basis for predictions or hypotheses that attempt to explain the mechanism responsible for the pattern.
KEY VOCABULARY
6.2
FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY

The strand “Force, Motion and Energy" focuses on student understanding of what force,
motion, and energy are and how the concepts are connected. The major topics developed
in this strand include magnetism; types of motion; simple machines; and energy forms
and transformations, especially electricity, sound, and light. This strand includes science
standards K.3, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3, 6.2, and 6.3.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Most sources of energy on the Earth are the result of solar radiation, either energy the
Earth is currently receiving or energy that has been stored as fossil fuels. Heat energy
also comes from the Earth’s interior. All energy exists in two basic forms, kinetic and
potential. Understanding the forms of energy and their transformations will provide the
foundation for students to investigate the transfer of energy within living and Earth
systems as well as to understand chemical reactions, force, and motion. This standard
builds upon concepts of energy sources introduced in science standard 3.11. It is
intended that students will actively develop science investigation, reasoning, and logic
skills (6.1) in the context of the key concepts presented in this standard.
OVERVIEW
The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
• Potential energy is energy that is not “in use” (stored) and is available to do work. Kinetic energy is energy that is “in use,” the energy a moving object has due to its motion. For example, moving water and wind have kinetic energy. The chemical energy in fossil fuels is considered potential energy until released. • Some important sources of energy include fossil fuels, wood, wind, water (hydropower), solar, and thermal energy from the Earth's interior. • Heat and light can be converted into mechanical energy, chemical energy, and • Solar energy from the ancient past is stored in fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum. Fossil fuels are rich in the elements carbon and hydrogen. These sources of energy take very long periods of time to form and once depleted, are essentially nonrenewable. • Many of the Earth’s energy resources are available on a perpetual basis. These include solar, wind, water, and geothermal energy. Some energy sources can be replaced over relatively short periods of time. These include wood and other biomass. All are considered renewable. • Modern industrial society is dependent upon energy. Fossil fuels are the major sources of energy in developed and industrialized nations.
KEY VOCABULARY
6.3
FORCE, MOTION, AND ENERGY

This strand “Force, Motion and Energy" focuses on students understanding of what force,
motion, and energy are and how the concepts are connected. The major topics developed
in this strand include magnetism, types of motion, simple and compound machines, and
energy forms and transformations, especially electricity, sound, and light. This strand
includes science standards K.3, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 5.3, 6.2, and 6.3.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
The key concepts defined in this standard are intended to expand student understanding
of the effects of solar radiation entering the Earth’s atmosphere on weather and ocean
current patterns. The distribution of energy through convection and radiation are
explored as students study cloud formation and movement patterns of the atmosphere and
the world’s oceans. This standard is closely related to standards 6.2 and 6.6 and builds
on the weather concepts developed in standard 4.6. and concepts of visible light in
standard 5.3. It is intended that students will actively develop scientific investigation,
GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
reasoning, and logic skills (6.1) in the context of the key concepts presented in this
standard.
OVERVIEW
The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
• The Earth receives only a very small portion of the sun’s energy, yet this energy is
responsible for powering the motion of the atmosphere, the oceans, and many processes at the Earth’s surface. • Solar radiation is made up of different types of radiation (including infrared, visible • Incoming solar radiation is in close balance with the energy that leaves the atmosphere; otherwise the Earth would heat up or cool down. Excess carbon dioxide and other gases may disrupt this balance, creating a Greenhouse Effect. • About one third of the sun’s incoming energy is reflected back out to space. About one half of the energy striking the Earth is absorbed by the Earth’s surface. • The Earth’s surface is heated unequally. • When air or water is heated, the molecules move faster and farther apart, reducing their density, causing them to rise. Cooler air or water molecules move more slowly and are denser than warm air or water. Warm air or water rising coupled with cooler air or water descending forms a cyclic rising/falling pattern called convection. • Radiation and convection from the surface transfer heat energy. This energy powers the global circulation of the atmosphere and the oceans on our planet. • As bodies of water (oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.) absorb heat energy, the water • Warm, moist air is less dense than cold, dry air, so it rises relative to colder, drier air. Warm, moist air rises and actually gives off some heat as the moisture condenses. Clouds are not gaseous water vapor; rather they are minute, condensed water particles. • Some thunderstorms are formed where the land is strongly heated. Hurricanes form over warm, tropical water and are fed by the energy of that water.
KEY VOCABULARY
6.4
STRAND: MATTER

GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
The strand focuses on the description, physical properties, and basic structure of matter.
The major topics developed in this strand include concepts related to basic description of
objects; solids, liquids, and gases (especially water); phase changes; mass and volume;
and the structure of classification of matter. This strand includes science standards K.4,
K.5, 1.3, 2.3, 3.3, 5.4, 6.4, 6.5, and 6.6.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Standard 6.4 focuses on an understanding of the basic structure of the atom, including
electrons, protons, and neutrons. The concepts defined in standard 6.4 build on students’
basic understanding of the structure of matter as introduced in science standards 3.3 and
5.4. Knowledge of basic chemistry concepts is fundamental to understanding the
physical sciences, life processes, and Earth and environmental science ideas. It is
intended that students will actively develop science investigation, reasoning, and logic
skills (6.1) in the context of the key concepts presented in this standard.
OVERVIEW
The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
• The basic structural components of the typical atom are electrons, protons, and
neutrons. Protons and neutrons comprise the nucleus of an atom. • An element is a form of matter made up of one type of atom. The atoms of an element are basically alike, though the number of neutrons may vary. • The atoms of one element and another element differ in the number of protons. • Elements can be represented by chemical symbols. • Two or more atoms of different elements may combine to form a compound. • Compounds can be represented by chemical formulas. Each different element in the compound is represented by its unique symbol. The number of each type of element in the compound (other than 1) is represented by a small number (the subscript) to the right of the element symbol. • Chemical equations can be used to model chemical changes illustrating how elements become rearranged in a chemical reaction. • A limited number of elements, including, silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon form the largest portion of the Earth’s crust, living matter, the oceans, and the atmosphere.
KEY VOCABULARY
6.5
STRAND: MATTER

GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
The strand focuses on the description, physical properties, and basic structure of matter.
The major topics developed in this strand include concepts related to basic description of
objects; solids, liquids, and gases (especially water); phase changes; mass and volume;
and the structure of classification of matter. This strand includes science standards K.4,
K.5, 1.3, 2.3, 3.3, 5.4, 6.4, 6.5, and 6.6.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Standard 6.5 is intended to develop student understanding of the unique properties of
water and the importance of protecting and managing water resources. Understanding
the structure of the water molecule, its properties and behavior is fundamental to
understanding more complex environmental systems. Concepts like solubility, surface
tension, cohesion, adhesion, density, condensation, and evaporation can be investigated
to appreciate why the properties of water are critical to life processes and living things.
This standard also introduces the concepts of the ability of large bodies of water to
moderate the climate on land. The connections between water resources and agriculture,
power generation, and public health are also investigated. It is intended that students will
actively develop science investigation, reasoning, and logic skills (6.1) in the context of
the key concepts presented in this standard.
OVERVIEW
The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
• Water is the only compound that commonly exists in all three states (solid, liquid,
gas) on Earth. The unique properties of water are a major factor in the ability of our planet to sustain life. • Among water’s unique properties is that one side of each water molecule is slightly negative and the other is slightly positive. Individual water molecules, therefore, attract other water molecules like little magnets as the slightly positive portion of a water molecule is attracted to the slightly negative portion of an adjacent water molecule. In this way water molecules “stick” together. • A large number of substances will “dissolve” in water. For this reason, water is often • Water is able to absorb heat energy without showing relatively large changes in temperature. Large bodies of water act to moderate the climate of surrounding areas by absorbing heat in summer and slowly releasing that heat in the winter. For this reason, the climate near large bodies of water is slightly milder than areas without large bodies of water. • Additional properties of water are its high surface tension and the large range of temperature (0 – 100 degrees Celsius) in which it can be found in the liquid state, as well as the fact that, unlike other substances, it expands when it freezes. Ice is less dense than liquid water. • Water (rain, ice, snow) has shaped our environment by physically and chemically weathering rock and soil and transporting sediments. Freezing water can break rock GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
without any change in the minerals that form the rock (physical weathering). This usually produces small particles and sand. Water with dissolved gases and other chemicals causes the minerals in rocks to be changed, leading to the deterioration of the rock (chemical weathering). • Scientific evidence indicates that the Earth formed about four-and-a-half billion years ago from the dust and debris orbiting the sun. Due to gravity, this debris became compacted and grew quite hot, creating hot gases including water vapor and carbon dioxide. Over millions of years, the Earth and its gases cooled and seas are believed to have formed when the Earth cooled enough for water vapor in the atmosphere to condense. • Most of Earth's water is salt water in the oceans (97%). Available non-frozen, fresh • Water occurs on our Earth in oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, and in rock layers underground called aquifers. A large amount of water is also found in the bodies of living things. • The first human settlements were established by springs, rivers, and lakes. Reliable fresh water sources and irrigation systems, allowed civilizations to grow and flourish. As cities grew, different strategies were employed to collect water (tunnels, aqueducts, wells, cisterns, pumps, reservoirs). • Water is essential for agriculture. Crops watered by reliable irrigation systems are more productive, and harvests more dependable. • Water is an important resource used in power generation. Hydroelectric power plants make use of the kinetic energy of water as it flows through turbines. Water is also used in power plants as the water is heated and turned to steam. The steam is used to turn turbines that generate electricity. • In the past, streams and rivers were often used to dispose of human waste, and open sewers were common. During the mid-1800s public health officials recognized the connection between disease outbreaks and contamination of public wells and drinking water. Advances in water treatment and sanitary sewers have helped eliminate diseases associated with human waste.
KEY VOCABULARY
6.6

GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
STRAND: MATTER

The strand focuses on the description, physical properties, and basic structure of matter.
The major topics developed in this strand include concepts related to basic description of
objects; solids, liquids, and gases (especially water); phase changes; mass and volume;
and the structure of classification of matter. This strand includes science standards K.4,
K.5, 1.3, 2.3, 3.3, 5.4, 6.4, 6.5, and 6.6.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Standard 6.6 is intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the properties
of air, the structure of the atmosphere, weather, and air quality. Students need to
understand there are both natural and human-caused changes to the atmosphere and that
the results of these changes are not yet fully understood. A basic understanding of
weather and weather prediction builds on the key concepts in standard 4.6. Standard 6.6
also focuses on student understanding of air quality as an important parameter of human
and environmental health. It is important to make the obvious connections between this
standard and the other sixth grade standards. It is intended that students will actively
develop science investigation, reasoning, and logic skills (6.1) in the context of the key
concepts presented in this standard.
OVERVIEW
The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
• Air is a mixture of gaseous elements and compounds. These include nitrogen,
oxygen, water, argon and carbon dioxide. Nitrogen makes up the largest proportion of the air. • Air exerts pressure. Air pressure decreases with altitude. • Moisture in the air is called humidity. • The atmosphere is made up of layers (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere) that have distinct characteristics. • Temperature decreases with altitude in the lowest layer of the atmosphere. • Most of the air that makes up the atmosphere is found in the troposphere, the lowest layer. Virtually all weather takes place there. • Forest fires and volcanic eruptions are two natural processes that affect the Earth’s atmosphere. Many gaseous compounds and particles are released into the atmosphere by human activity. All of the effects of these materials are not yet fully understood. • The amount of heat energy, water vapor, and the pressure of the air largely determine • Weather maps show much useful information about descriptive air measurements, observations, and boundaries between air masses (fronts). The curved lines showing areas of equal air pressure and temperature are key features of weather maps. Weather maps are important for understanding and predicting the weather. GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
• Clouds are important indicators of atmospheric conditions. Clouds are found at various levels within the troposphere. Three major types of clouds are cumulus, stratus, and cirrus clouds. • Ozone, a form of oxygen, can form near the surface when exhaust pollutants react with sunlight. This pollutant can cause health problems. Naturally occurring ozone is also found in the upper atmosphere and helps to shield the Earth from ultraviolet radiation. • Maintaining good air quality is a crucial goal for modern society, and it is everyone’s
KEY VOCABULARY
6.7
STRAND: LIVING SYSTEMS

The strand “Living Systems” begins in second grade and builds from basic to more
complex understandings of a system, both at the ecosystem level and at the level of the
cell. The concept of kingdoms of organisms and a general classification of organisms are
also presented. The other major topics developed in the strand include the types of
relationships among organisms in a food chain, different types of environments and the
organisms they support, and the relationship between organisms and the nonliving
environment. This strand includes science standards 2.5, 3.5, 3.6, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.7.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Standard 6.7 is intended to provide students with a basic understanding of how natural
processes and human interactions impact watershed systems. This includes an
understanding of the physical geography of Virginia’s portions of the three major
watershed systems (the Chesapeake Bay, the North Carolina sounds, and the Gulf of
Mexico) and the various features associated with moving water (surface and
groundwater). Wetlands have become an important focus of scientists as we learn their
role in flood and erosion control as well as their importance as habitat for many species
of living things. Students are introduced to major safety and conservation issues
associated with watersheds and become familiar with the testing parameters and tools
used in the field. It is intended that students will actively develop science investigation,
reasoning, and logic skills (6.1) in the context of the key concepts presented in this
standard.
OVERVIEW
GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET

The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
• An ecosystem is made up of the living community and the non-living factors that
affect it. The health of an ecosystem is directly related to water quality. • Abiotic factors determine ecosystem type, its distribution of plants and animals as well as the usage of land by people. Abiotic factors include water supply, topography, landforms, geology, soils, sunlight, and air quality/O2 availability. • Human activities can alter abiotic components and thus accelerate or decelerate natural processes. For example, people can affect the rate of erosion (a natural process). Plowing cropland can cause erosion, while planting trees can prevent it. Flood protection/wetland loss is another example. • A watershed is the land that water flows across or through on its way to a stream, lake, or wetland. Areas of higher elevations, such as ridgelines or divides, separate watersheds. • The three major regional watersheds systems in Virginia lead to the Chesapeake Bay, the North Carolina sounds, and the Gulf of Mexico. • River systems are made up of tributaries of smaller streams that join along their courses. Rivers and streams generally have wide flat, border areas, called flood plains, onto which water spills out at times of high flow. • Rivers and streams carry and deposit sediment. As water flow decreases in speed the size of the sediment it carries decreases. • Wetlands form the transition zone between dry land and bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, or bays. Both tidal and non-tidal wetlands perform important water quality functions including regulating runoff by storing flood waters; reducing erosion by slowing down runoff; maintaining water quality by filtering sediments, trapping nutrients and breaking down pollutants; and recharging groundwater. They also provide food and shelter for wildlife and fish and nesting and resting areas for migratory birds. • Estuaries perform important functions, such as providing habitat for many organisms and serving as nurseries for their young. • The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary where fresh and salt water meet and are mixed by tides. It is the largest estuary in the contiguous United States and one of the most productive. • Water quality monitoring is the collection of water samples to analyze chemical and/or biological parameters. Simple parameters include pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and the presence of macroinvertebrate organisms.
KEY VOCABULARY

GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET

6.8
STRAND: INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN EARTH/SPACE SYSTEMS

The strand focuses on student understanding of how Earth systems are connected, and
how the Earth interacts with other members of the solar system. The topics developed
include shadows; relationships between the sun and the Earth; weather types, patterns,
and instruments; properties of soil; characteristics of the ocean environment; and
organization of the solar system. This strand includes science standards K.7, 1.6, 2.6,
3.7, 4.6, 5.6, and 6.8.

UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Standard 6.8 is intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the solar
system, how it is organized, and the relationships among bodies within the solar system.
This standard develops an understanding of the Earth as part of the solar system and
builds significantly on standards 3.8 and 4.7. It is intended that students will actively
develop science investigation, reasoning, and logic skills (6.1) in the context of the key
concepts presented in this standard.
OVERVIEW
The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
• The solar system consists of the sun, moon, Earth, other planets and their moons,
meteors, asteroids, and comets. Each body has its own characteristics and features. • The distance between planets and sizes of the planets varies greatly. The outer, “gas” planets are very large, and the four inner planets are comparatively small and rocky. • Gravity is a force that keeps the planets in motion around the sun. Gravity acts • Planets revolve around the sun, and moons revolve around planets. A planet • As the Earth rotates, different sides of the Earth face toward or away from the sun, thus causing day and night, respectively. • The phases of the moon are caused by its position relative to the Earth and sun. • The Earth is a rocky planet, extensively covered with large oceans of liquid water, and having frozen ice caps in its polar regions. The Earth has a protective atmosphere consisting predominantly of nitrogen and oxygen and has a magnetic field. The atmosphere and the magnetic field help shield the Earth’s surface from GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
harmful solar radiation. Scientific evidence indicates that the Earth is about 4.5 billion years old. • Seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth on its axis, and thus, the angle at which sunlight strikes the surface of the Earth during its annual revolution around the sun. • Tides are the result of the gravitational pull of the moon and sun on the surface • The ideas of Ptolemy, Aristotle, Copernicus, and Galileo contributed to the development of our understanding of the solar system. • With the development of new technology over the last half-century, our knowledge of the solar system has increased substantially.
KEY VOCABULARY
6.9
STRAND: RESOURCES

The strand focuses on student understanding of the role of resources in the natural world
and how people can utilize those resources in a sustainable way. An important idea
represented in this strand is the concept of management of resource use. This begins with
basic ideas of conservation and proceeds to more abstract consideration of costs and
benefits. The topics developed include conservation of materials, soil and plants as
resources, energy use, water, Virginia’s resources, and how public policy impacts the
environment. This strand includes science standards K.10, 1.8, 2.8, 3.10, 3.11, 4.8, and
6.9.
UNDERSTANDING THE STANDARD
Standard 6.9 is intended to develop student understanding of the importance of the
Earth’s natural resources, the need to manage them, how they are managed, and the
analysis of costs and benefits in making decisions about those resources. It applies and
builds on the concepts described in several lower grades, especially science standard 4.8.
Knowledge gained from this standard will be important to understanding numerous
concepts in life and Earth Science. It is intended that students will actively develop
science investigation, reasoning, and logic skills (6.1) in the context of the key concepts
presented in this standard.
OVERVIEW
The concepts developed in this standard include the following: GRADE SIX
STANDARDS OF LEARNING
FACT SHEET
• People, as well as other living organisms, are dependent upon the availability of clean water and air and a healthy environment. • Local, state, and federal governments have significant roles in managing and protecting air, water, plant, and wildlife resources. • Modern society is dependent upon many finite resources including coal, oil, • Many renewable and nonrenewable resources are managed by the private sector • Regulations, incentives, and voluntary efforts help conserve resources and protect • Conservation of resources and environmental protection begin with the individual. • Use of renewable and nonrenewable resources must be considered in terms of • Preventive measures, such as pollution prevention or thoughtfully planned and enforced land-use restrictions can reduce the impact of potential problems in the future. • Pollution prevention and waste management are less costly than cleanup.
• Renewable resources should be managed so they produce continuously.
Sustainable development makes decisions about long-term use of the land and natural resources for maximum community benefits, for the longest time, with the least environmental damage.
KEY VOCABULARY

Source: http://www.nexus.tc/teachers/pacingguides/Danville/Grade%206/GRADE%206%20SCIENCE%20SOL%20FACT%20SHEET%20JUNE%202003.pdf

Microsoft word - publications.doc

Publications Somani, S.M., Synthesis of disulphides of ephedrine and its analogs, M.S. Thesis, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, 1964. Somani, S.M., Isolation of metabolites of pyridostigmine and neostigmine, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Liverpool, England, 1969. Somani, S.M., Calvey, T.N., Wright, A. The excretion of hydroxyphenyltrimethylammonium in bile. Br. J. Pharmacol. 37: 528P-5

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