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The principles of design can be applied to generate breakthrough thinking over incremental thinking. Here’s how to get started.
24 • Rotman Magazine Spring/Summer 2006
Design is one of the hottest topics in the business arena today, dubbed the new driver principles and practices behind all great design can be more broadly leveraged into weapon. This year, it even got its due at Open Up: Design doing is a non-starter
Davos, where the World Economic
tantly, the reframing of opportunities in a Forum featured a roster of programs on
new thinking about innovation and the value referred to as ‘design thinking’.
order to achieve something worthwhile.
through ideas [including three sessions led neering, architecture, graphics, industrial by Rotman Dean Roger Martin.]
design and others) teach things not typi- to ‘working together’, but also an earnest receptiveness to new ideas (good and bad), what the world’s leading innovators are dis- an interest in every new insight – whether ‘design world’ thinks and makes things, it fits your preconceived paradigm or not, waste – of energy (human and otherwise), there are patterns that emerge in terms of and an allowance to imagine the possibili- mindset and method that are just as valu- unreasonable or infeasible ideas may seem.
fullest potential, it must be translated into endeavors as they are in the design realm.
an accessible,‘doable’ program.Those who are intrigued by design need to be able to to create economic and human value – be it feed off of new insights and effectively build grasp its core notions and begin to put its off the ideas of others, embracing both the principles and practices into play, with a established commercial enterprise – can friction and fusion that comes with intense long-term conviction to shifting their cul- ture by driving the philosophy throughout Is it all about creativity? No. Creativity Go out on a limb: The right emotional cir-
is technically the ability to create something products or services, a new way of market- new. Design is about the process of making experiment and play with new ideas. Great ing to your customer, or to reinvent your or doing something new. And that’s where entire business model, ‘design thinking’ design is more aligned with innovation on a and trying new things, with the very strong holds valuable clues as to how to get to big- grand scale – it is not an attribute, it is fun- possibility of failure. IDEO, one of the
ger ideas, faster and more efficiently. And world’s greatest innovation labs, has count- while there are many methods for fuelinginnovation, the principles and practicesbehind design are so intuitive and have such a pedigree of success, it is hard to questiontheir value.
doing something new. It is not an attribute, it is fundamentally about action.
highlighting the learning and practices ofthose who have discovered how to turn Finally, the process of ‘design doing’ is less stories of where a really ‘bad’ or ‘crazy’ design thinking into design doing.
not about establishing a new set of rules – it is about a fundamental shift in culture a Design vs. Design Thinking
ask, “What if it doesn’t work?” or claim, “If Most people associate the word ‘design’ methods of working that infuses your cul- I do that I may get fired.” Creating a culture with a physical manifestation of form and ture with the spirit of innovation in a way of courage is not just about making people function – an aesthetic that appeals to the brave enough to go out on a limb, it is about discerning user, a form that creates a satis- creating the right conditions in which brave The Mindset Defines the Conditions
and intelligent people can perform – condi- emotional ‘journey’ for the user in spatial The first step is to extract the ‘attitude’ tions of integrity, trust, and tolerance for risk-taking. All of these are related back to that makes the concept viable, technically great articles written about the mindset of open-minded collaboration, as integrity is and economically. All of these are valid and the root of trust, which is the fuel for col- valuable interpretations of design, relating inspiring characteristics that most of us to the craft and technical expertise of the design field that helps to create human and courageous individual will not succeed.
Rotman Magazine Spring/Summer 2006 • 25
Don’t give up: No great design is realized
salaries are invested. Most ‘growth initia- mouse for Apple was perfected by IDEO
tives’ take the form of line extensions and following extensive prototyping and itera- straints and obstacles. Dean Roger
impossible requirement of increased relia- Martin states that the single biggest attitu-
in a certain way for specific products or cat- bility at 10 per cent of the original cost of its dinal driver in breakthrough success is a“no trade-offs” mindset – the attitude of those who dive into ‘wicked problems’ andsee constraints as a juicy challenge rather than a reason to give in and settle for less.
tional conditions under which designthinking can flourish, without those out- lined above, innovation through the practiceof design will never get off the ground.Thepsychology of the individual and collective egories. If research suggests incremental Xerox version. Similarly, concept cars are
sales with minimal investment risk, it’s ‘all unveiled at auto shows to generate customer systems go’. This is a very responsible way feedback and further refine the design.
The Methodology – Gearing Up
to stretch more out of your current activity With the ‘big idea’ in hand, you then system, with largely incremental results.
Then there’s the ‘breakthrough route’, design, to model a unique system of ‘strate- gic hubs’ and ‘supporting activities’ that will nents rather than a litany of rules, process begin with the user and set out on a path to not only deliver value to the user, but also look at the broader context of their lives competitive advantage and profit to you.
Pushing the concept through to a point that it is viable and profitable is not easy – this is zation, three ‘forces’ have to converge: a tapped. The Illinois Institute of Technol- where the ‘no trade-offs’ attitude pays off. It ogy’s Institute of Design has developed an requires a lot of hard work and many itera- typing; and strategic business design. In designworks™, we call these forces ‘the
ing the user’s ‘activity’ (versus product breakthrough will tell you that their convic- tion and collaboration pushed the project opportunities and helps set new criteria for through to fruition. Southwest Airlines
Figure One: The Three Gears of Design
innovation. If you develop a deeper under- one of the most innovative providers of con- yourself up to new possibilities. Witness athletic performance brands like Adidas
industry, creating a sustainable competitive moving into the fashion arena, and iPOD’s advantage that other airlines have attempted redefinition of mobile entertainment.
insights and criteria to develop ‘outside the many tools and techniques that are used by dots’ concepts – exploring many new and even seemingly crazy ways to deliver bigger, rigour behind each gear cannot be compro- broader user value. The ‘design key’ in the linear pass-through process; it is extremely and consider a variety of ways to deliver iterative. It’s not about using a restrictive against your criteria through multiple-pro- set of rules – but instead creating the right feedback and reconfiguration along the way.
(user – idea – business model) serve as the touch points throughout an iterative devel- do as a matter of practice is begin by exam- narrow your options and create the concept ining their ‘big gear’ – the existing business that is most distinctive and creates the most oneself and the team from the constraints model.This tried-and-true exercise focuses value for your user, perhaps tapping into a of early perfection and not being preoccu- need or opportunity that no one (including pied with getting it right too early, so that current capabilities and capacity – natu- you limit your possibilities. What compa- rally, as this is where their capital and lated: that’s breakthrough. The computer 26 • Rotman Magazine Spring/Summer 2006
prototyping – be it a product concept or a 1. Life-Saving Packaging:
business model – is that they work their Target’s New Prescription Bottle
ideas through earlier and faster, leveraging In 2004, insightful designer Deborah
Adler [see coverage of her talk at Rotman
2. Operational Transformation: Boeing
management – rather than waiting until all on page 87] set out to completely overhaul of the I’s are dotted and T’s crossed to get the standard decades-old prescription bot- tle which created no end of problems with patient compliance and health risks due to and organizational challenges of its past, Design Principles Pay Off
Boeing and its architectural firm NBBJ
standing of who took medications and how, decided to put design thinking to work in its broadest sense and create a ‘democratic’ methodology of design are put into play, it take the anxiety and risks out of medicat- ing. Target Pharmacies embraced her
white-collar engineers, sales, and corpo- design and took on the challenge of work- doing’ can deliver breakthrough results in that this may very well be the single biggest behind these successes are reflective of the decades.This is a fantastic example of how principles of design and showcase the wide- something ‘generic’ and functional can cre- rather than the process. Real and quantifi- spread impact of design in diverse fields.
Business Design Initiative
Karen Christensen: What is the Rotman
HF: What are you hoping to achieve over
Business Design Initiative?
exchange of thinking that brings together the next five years?
Heather Fraser: The Business Design Ini-
complimentary areas of expertise in design KC:The overall goal is to develop a learning
and business.The collaboration has emerged out of a shared interest in fusing the best industry that will integrate the best prac- Desautels Centre for Integrative Thinking.
practices of design and business to foster tices from a wide range of design-related Whereas the broader notion of integrative innovation. The goal of this collaboration is disciplines. This will include the develop- thinking includes all aspects of the cogni- to link ‘design methodologies’ around human insight, physical invention and busi- ‘connective’ thinking, the design initiative ness design in a way which will complete the design principles and practices to create specifically applies principles and practices innovation cycle, from inspiration through to the creation of a viable concept and sup- collaboration, designworksTM, fuses the
• a curriculum stream that will offer MBA KC: Talk a bit about the School’s partners
learning of all three academic institutions on this initiative.
into a working model for inspiring innova- HF: The relationship Rotman has with the
tion across all functional disciplines. Our relating to ‘design doing’, culminating in Institute of Design at Stanford [headed up by pilot sponsor is Procter & Gamble, a
IDEO founder David Kelley] and the Illi-
leader in design thinking in industry. Beyond • a design module integrated into the Exec- nois Institute of Technology’s Institute of this workshop initiative, we have also shared Design [headed by Patrick Whitney] is
research interests relating to the impact of • a customized education program for cor- best described as a collaboration – a work- porations and industry at large which can ing relationship that is not one of a formal or process and cultural transformation.
enhance the innovation capabilities andculture of a wide range of organizations.
Rotman Magazine Spring/Summer 2006 • 27
2. Build it into your corporate/organiza-
inspiration in fueling corporate ‘brand’ cul- shortened, and the number of ‘flow days’ in tional strategy. Design is not just a ‘tactic’;
tures like Clearnet (now Telus), Apple
the factory for final assembly was reduced in order to succeed, it needs to be part of and Medtronic. Design thinking can
your organizational strategy – from top to you can improve operational effectiveness bottom, across all areas of expertise. Sam-
sung’s embrace of design at all
6. Feed it and reward it. Once all of the
organizational levels has allowed it to move above conditions are met and ‘design doing’ operational and cultural transformation.
is set in motion, the organization will make 3. Communications Design: Viagra
trounces Sony and Panasonic in sales.
In 2001,Viagra held the leadership share in organization’s innovation strategy, it also its category.The challenge was that the mar- 3. Assign a leader, but don’t limit it to a
needs to be part of an its cultural develop- ket was ‘contained’, for the simple reason function. Innovation through ‘design doing’
that men were not consulting their doctors involves everyone. It is not just the ‘design to be validated. 3M’s strong ‘culture of
about their condition. By understanding the department’ or the ‘innovation team’ or the innovation’ that rewards creativity at every holistic experience of the sufferer from the ‘marketing function’ – it should inspire and organizational level has made the company stage of ‘denial through to revival’, Pfizer
impact every corner of the organization.
a leader in delivering breakthrough solu-tions throughout much of its history.
Design is not a one-shot vaccine; it’s an 7. The future starts today. While a sus-
tained shift in culture takes time to gain
‘innovation fitness program’ that puts an traction, it is important to get started, think big about the future, and implement In Closing
and guided the sufferer through every stage song sheet. Claudia Kotchka’s appoint-
Organizations can no longer count on qual- of their journey, using a multitude of chan- ment as head of design strategy at Procter ity, performance or price alone to sustain nels and tactics to empathetically transform & Gamble has served to inspire and institu- leadership in the global marketplace. Design a passive patient into an active patient. The tionalize design across the 100,000-strong results – an unleashing of patient/doctor weapon and key driver of innovation. Lever- dialogue and a surge in prescriptions – aging the power of design across all aspects demonstrate that these same principles can of a business can establish and sustain an organization’s unique competitive advantage.
development and communications planning.
4. Collaborate and internalize it. Don’t
hire someone to do it for you, collaborate Seven Steps to Successful Design-Doing
with experts who will do it with you and organization will be well equipped to trans- committing to ‘design’ as a means of dialing physical training, consider hiring a ‘design late inspiration into implementation.
trainer’ or ‘coach’. Witness Monitor Uni- versity, IDEO’s relationship with its
Heather Fraser is director of Business Design Initiatives in the Desautels Centre for Integrative Thinking at the Rotman designworks™ ini-
School. She is the creator of Rotman designworks™, a pilot
1. Make a long-term commitment.
program currently being tested in organizations that will Design is not a one-shot vaccine; it’s an become part of the Rotman curriculum in the near future.
‘innovation fitness program’ that puts an 5. Inspire, don’t legislate. It’s not about
organization on top of its game. It is not an establishing a new set of rules. It’s about a ‘event’, it is a way of thinking, communicat- cultural shift toward fewer rules, deeper ing and doing every day. GE’s strong track
values, and stronger principles. It’s a new record of investing in management practices way to think, not just about projects but the that push for continuous product and busi- way you work together day-to- day to solve organization an innovation behemoth.
tunities. One only has to see the power of 28 • Rotman Magazine Spring/Summer 2006

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