PROHIBITED LIST INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2012 THE 2012 PROHIBITED LIST WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE Valid 1 January 2012
In accordance with Article 4.2.2 of the World Anti-Doping Code,
all Prohibited Substances shall be considered as “Specified Substances” except Substances in classes S1, S2, S4.4, S4.5, S6.a, and Prohibited Methods M1, M2 and M3.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION) PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES
S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (e.g drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued, designer drugs, veterinary medicines) is prohibited at all times. S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited. 1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously: androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-
3,17-dione); dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one); prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone and their metabolites and isomers, including but not limited to: 5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane- 3β,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene- 3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol; 4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol); 5-androstenedione (androst-5-
ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α- androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 7α-hydroxy-DHEA ; 7β-hydroxy-DHEA ; 7-keto-DHEA; 19-norandrosterone; 19- noretiocholanolone. 2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to: Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone, zeranol, zilpaterol.
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the body naturally. S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances and their releasing factors are prohibited: 1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents [e.g. erythropoietin (EPO), darbepoetin (dEPO), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA), peginesatide (Hematide)]; 2. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in 3. Insulins; 4. Corticotrophins; 5. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) as well as any other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative capacity or fibre type switching;
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited except salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours), formoterol (maximum 36 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regime. The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL or formoterol in excess of 30 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of the therapeutic inhaled dose up to the maximum indicated above.
S4. HORMONE AND METABOLIC MODULATORS The following are prohibited: 1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to: aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione), 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo), exemestane, formestane, letrozole, testolactone. 2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not
limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene. 3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to: clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant. 4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited, to: myostatin inhibitors. 5. Metabolic modulators: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516), PPARδ-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include: Diuretics, desmopressin, plasma expanders (e.g. glycerol; intravenous
administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol), probenecid; and other substances with similar biological effect(s). Local
application of felypressin in dental anaesthesia is not prohibited. Diuretics include: Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone, etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone, thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide), triamterene; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
biological effect(s) (except drospirenone, pamabrom and topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide, which are not prohibited). The use In- and Out-of-Competition, as applicable, of any quantity of a substance subject to threshold limits (i.e. formoterol, salbutamol, morphine, cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine) in conjunction with a diuretic or other masking agent requires the deliverance of a specific Therapeutic Use Exemption for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or other masking agent. PROHIBITED METHODS
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER The following are prohibited: 1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous
blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including,
but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION The following are prohibited:
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and
validity of Samples collected during Doping Control is prohibited. These include but are not limited to urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
2. Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50 mL per 6 hour period
are prohibited except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations.
3. Sequential withdrawal, manipulation and reintroduction of any quantity of
whole blood into the circulatory system.
M3. GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited: 1. The transfer of nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences;
2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION In addition to the categories S0 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above, the following categories are prohibited In-Competition: PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES S6. STIMULANTS
All stimulants (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2012 Monitoring Program*.
Stimulants include: a: Non-Specified Stimulants: Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil; benfluorex; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex; cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine; etilamphetamine; famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine; fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb; methamphetamine(d-); p-methylamphetamine; methylenedioxyamphetamine; methylenedioxymethamphetamine; modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine; phenmetrazine; phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prenylamine; prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance. b: Specified Stimulants (examples): Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate; fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamfetamine; meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine); methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine; octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline; pentetrazol; phenpromethamine; propylhexedrine; pseudoephedrine*****; selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane; and other substances
with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
* The following substances included in the 2012 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, nicotine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
** Local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) of Adrenaline or co-
administration with local anaesthetic agents is not prohibited.
*** Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5
**** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its
concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
***** Pseudoephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 micrograms per milliliter. S7. NARCOTICS
The following are prohibited: Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Natural (e.g. cannabis, hashish, marijuana) or synthetic delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabimimetics [e.g. “Spice” (containing JWH018, JWH073), HU-210] are prohibited. S9. GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes. SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR P1. ALCOHOL
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping
violation threshold (haematological values) is 0.10 g/L. • Aeronautic (FAI)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. • Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
• Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
• Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following: Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
Redução de taxa apoia 1/3 das empresas previstas Os economistas pediram reduções fiscais. O Governo dirigiu o desconto da taxa social única para pequenas empresas com trabalhadores mais velhos. Para já, abrange 60 mil empresas Rogério Santos, que emprega dezenas de pessoas em Cacia, pensava que a redução da taxa social única para trabalhadores com mais de 45 anos só se aplicava às