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The Sabin Report | Volume 12 Issue 4
Sabin Receives €5.9 Million from Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Advance Development of Human Hookworm Vaccine Sabin Vaccine Development has received a four-year, €5.9 million grant from the
Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs to support the
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intestinal parasitic disease most commonly found in sub-Saharan
Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America, affects an estimated 600
million people. Because hookworm occurs exclusively among the
world's poorest people and there is no traditional developed market
for a vaccine, the hookworm vaccine is being developed through an
international product development partnership (PDP) called Sabin Vaccine Development.
The PDP is comprised of the Sabin Vaccine Institute (Sabin), The
George Washington University, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, James
Cook University, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical
Medicine, and Instituto Butantan, among other key collaborating
The hookworm infection vaccine that is under development is a
recombinant protein-based vaccine for the prevention of disease due
to Necator americanus
, which accounts for 85% of hookworm cases
throughout the world. Children under the age of 10 living in endemic regions will be the principal targets of vaccination because they are at greatest risk of the severe growth, developmental and cognitive impairments that result from the iron-deficiency anemia that is associated with hookworm.
The best current approach to the control of hookworm infection relies on mass drug administration with one of two benzimidazole
anthelminthic drugs--albendazole or mebendazole--but data indicate
that annual deworming with benzimidazoles may be less effective for
hookworm than for other intestinal parasites. In addition, high rates of mebendazole drug failure have been reported and repeated
administration of mebendazole in the same population can lead to
diminished efficacy against hookworm, thus raising concerns about the emergence of resistance to this drug. This generous grant from the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs will allow the PDP to move ahead with product development, manufacture, a preclinical toxicology study, and clinical testing of our hookworm infection vaccine antigens, all necessary steps to ensure that a low-cost vaccine for human hookworm infection is available and accessible to those who need it most.
Dr. Seble Lemma Frehywot was unanimously appointed to
PneumoniaFighters! Celebrate World
countries. A series of events were organized in Washington DC, including advocacy activities at local metro stations with the
PneumoniaFighters!. Commuters were encouraged to send
PneumoniaGrams, take pictures with the PneumoniaFighters!, and to
spread the word about pneumonia. PACE Co-Chair Dr. Orin Levine
participated in "The Faces of Pneumonia - A Conversation Moderated
by Cokie Roberts" event hosted at the Kaiser Foundation and
organized by The Global Coalition against Child Pneumonia. The
expert panel discussed the global, local and personal toll of
PACE, with support from the International Vaccine Access Center
(IVAC) , also sponsored a series of small grants to encourage and
support global World Pneumonia Day activities. Recipients included
organizations in Nepal, Mali, the Philippines and Egypt. Numerous
events were organized in China, including a conference on
pneumonia for the Chinese Society of Pediatrics and the Chinese
Subsociety of Pediatric Pulmonolgy, announcements in local papers
and interviews on local TV, and activities for health workers and
pediatricians across the country. Bangladesh once again organized
partners, including the Child Health Research Foundation,
Bangladesh Paediatric Association and Save the Children, in a series
of events to mark World Pneumonia Day 2010.
Chairman of Sabin's Board of Trustees. "I look forward to her fruitful contributions to our
Global Network Helps World Health Organization
Celebrate First Report on Neglected Tropical
human suffering from vaccine preventable and
On October 14, 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO)
overcome the global impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases." The report details the work
challenges for the future, common features of NTDs, new strategies for control and elimination and how control strategies contribute to
Drs. Peter Hotez, Francesco Rio, and
Neeraj Mistry at the conclusion of Global
The Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases held a reception in conjunction with the release of the WHO report at the Council on
Foreign Relations on October 20, 2010. A panel discussion was
kicked off by Dr. Neeraj Mistry, Managing Director of the Global
Network, with additional comments given by Dr. Peter Hotez, Sabin
President, and Dr. Francesco Rio, Head of Communications for the
Wednesday, May 18,
at The George
Also in attendance at the Global Network's reception was His
Excellency Ambassador Steve Matenje, Republic of Malawi; Dr. Jon
Andrus, Deputy Director, Pan American Health Organization; and Dr.
Debapriya Dutta, Science and Technology Counselor, Embassy of
Read the WHO's full report and report summary.
View photos from the Global Network's Reception. Watch coverage of the report launch in Geneva, Switzerland.
President of American Society of Tropical
The American Society of Tropical Medicine
2010 that Sabin President Dr. Peter Hotez
has assumed the role of President of the
professionals whose mission is to promote
global health through the prevention and
control of infectious and other diseases that
disproportionately afflict the global poor.
In his role as president, Dr. Hotez will focus on outreach to
colleagues from the Society's disease endemic countries, promoting
military medicine, and harnessing the energy and talents of the next
initiative's great success over the past 10 years
"It is a true honor and privilege to serve as president of ASTMH for
the coming year," said Dr. Hotez. "I look forward to representing this
prestigious and vital Society and working toward expanding its reach
and tackling some of the most pressing global health challenges."
production, and one vaccine candidate into
Sabin to Help Shape Global Vaccine Action Plan
vulnerable populations over the next decade.
In addition, Sustainable Immunization Financing (SIF) program
Director Dr. Mike McQuestion and Senior Program Officer Dr. Clifford
Kamara will serve as advisors for the cost and financing group, which
aims to estimate future financial flows and funding gaps to reach
vaccine delivery objectives for the coming decade.
The collaboration--launched jointly by the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation, World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases--follows an
announcement by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation during the last
World Economic Forum in Davos to pledge $10 billion over the next
10 years to help research, develop and deliver vaccines for the
The "Decade of Vaccines Collaboration" will produce a Global
Vaccine Action Plan that aims to increase coordination among
various stakeholders and identify policy, resource and other gaps that
must be addressed to fully realize the potential of vaccines.
of the first human hookworm vaccine will not only represent an important public health breakthrough--reducing
PAHO honors Dr. Ciro de Quadros during 50th
and his involvement in the creation of PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement.
PAHO Director Dr. Mirta Roses presents Dr.
commemorating his legacy in global health
Directing Council, which focused on the 30th anniversary of the
Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement and smallpox eradication. Ministers of Health from the Americas looked at major advances in
the region, ranging from the 1994 eradication of polio in the
Americas, the elimination of measles transmission in 2000, and the
planned elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome
exceptional performance as Technical Director of
"Were it not for the Revolving Fund, this progress would not have
been achieved," said Dr. de Quadros during the meeting. "This was a
beacon of innovation. It was the only such fund in the whole United
Nations system." PAHO's Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement
began operating in 1979 as part of the Expanded Program on
For the past 30 years, the Revolving Fund has been the cooperation
mechanism created by the member states of PAHO to maintain the
timely provision of quality vaccines at the lowest possible prices.
These efforts have had a positive impact, reducing morbidity and
mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases and, in general,
improving public health for the peoples of the region of the Americas.
Watch Dr. de Quadros' commemorative speech.
Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta. We are grateful for his contributions, strategic
announced that it will serve as the secretariat of the new Coalition against Typhoid (CaT), a global forum of health
advocating for increased utilization of typhoid vaccination
funded with support from a three-year, $3 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Typhoid fever is an acute febrile illness, caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi)
. The disease occurs
only in humans and is associated with unsafe food and water and
poor sanitation. Antibiotics have been effective in dramatically
reducing typhoid fever mortality, but resistance to first-line antimicrobials is widespread and more severe outcomes are
becoming commonplace. The usage of available and effective
typhoid vaccines could help greatly in the prevention of this disease.
The goal of CaT will be to define the barriers for adoption of typhoid
vaccines and the key activities needed to overcome these barriers by
expanding available disease burden information, emphasizing the
WHO recommendations on the implementation of typhoid vaccines,
and increasing the overall priority of typhoid vaccines at international,
regional, and country levels. CaT will work to expedite and sustain
evidence-based and informed decisions at the global, regional and
country levels regarding the use of typhoid vaccines.
Members of CaT currently include the Aga Khan University, Bharat
Biotech, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Center for Vaccine
Development at the University of Maryland, Crucell, GAVI Alliance,
International Vaccine Institute, Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global
Health, PATH, Sanofi-Pasteur, UNICEF, the U.S. Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, The Wellcome Trust Sanger
Institute, and the World Health Organization.
Sustainable Immunization Financing (SIF)
immunization financing during a working
Eighty-seven participants, including parliamentarians and officials
from the ministry of health and finance from Cambodia, Nepal and Sri
Lanka; as well as representatives from the World Bank, United
Nations Development Programme and UNICEF, attended the two
day meeting. The meeting featured a policy and scientific session, a
panel discussion, and a breakout session where participants were
at the AFRO Annual Regional Conference on
placed in small working groups and asked to address the theme of
"budget preparation and oversight" or "legislating for immunization and health." The symposium concluded with the adoption of the "Phnom Penh
Declaration," which calls for the respective ministries of health and
finance of each country to join parliamentarians in enhancing the
national immunization budget and proposing concrete steps for the prevention of vaccine preventable diseases, among other things.
Read the final report. View photos from the symposium.
Deworming Campaign in Gaza and the West Bank
Sabin Receives Grant to Lead Global Effort to
Syndrome (CRS) Burden through Vaccination
Network announced a collaboration with Dubai
is associated with rubella virus infection during the first trimester of
Known as congenital rubella syndrome, CRS causes significant
hearing and visual impairment and mental retardation in countries
where rubella infection is not yet controlled or eliminated. According
to the World Health Organization (WHO), as of 2008, only 40% of
infants had received rubella vaccines through national immunization
The annual cost of treating an infant with CRS over a lifetime is
approximately $63,000 in the Caribbean and more than $200,000 in
the United States. Asia and Africa are the largest regions that have
yet to introduce the vaccine. In both regions, the economic burden
and rate of disease is poorly documented, but the WHO estimates
that in Southeast Asia alone approximately 46,600 infants per year
are born with CRS. Only a mean of 13 cases are reported each year,
however, revealing the work that needs to be done to improve both
surveillance of and vaccination for rubella.
A survey conducted by UNRWA in 2005 revealed the prevalence of anemia
Spain Royal National Academy of Medicine Prize
Gaza is 23.95% and 36.3% for first grade
National Academy of Medicine (RANM) during a ceremony chaired by HRH Infanta Margarita.
Sabin Executive Vice President Dr. Ciro de
Quadros receives the Carlos IV Prize from HM
awarded yearly by RANM to promote activities related to improving
public health and progress of biomedical research in general.
Dr. de Quadros was honored for his pioneering work with smallpox
surveillance and containment, and his leadership in the eradication of
measles and polio from the Americas. 2010 marked the 30th
anniversary of smallpox eradication, a key event that King Charles IV
supported through the Balmis expedition. In the 19th century, Dr.
Francisco Javier de Balmis toured the world and vaccinated children
in all of the Spanish colonies with a smallpox vaccine.
RANM President Manuel Díaz-Rubio stated previously of Dr. de
Quadros that, "his contributions to the prevention and control of
smallpox worldwide and promoting international immunization
programs in developing countries have been crucial to the jury's
decision to make him worthy of this distinction."
Read Dr. de Quadros' acceptance remarks.
shortages of the drug praziquantel, used to treat schistosomiasis.
Regional Health Officials Meet to Address
Leading Killers of Children in the Eastern
by Voice of America
to discuss a new polio
PACE Council Member Dr. Najwa Khuri-
The symposium was the third in Bulos presents at a symposium in Amman,
that began in 2007 to increase access to life-saving vaccines that
protect children from the world's most deadly diseases. Dr. Najwa
Khuri-Bulos, a PACE member and head of the Division of Infectious
Disease at Jordan University Hospital, organized the event.
In Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria combined, more than 15,000
children under age five die each year from pneumonia and diarrheal
disease, creating a significant disease burden that accounts for
almost a third (28 percent) of all child deaths in these four countries
Worldwide, pneumonia and diarrheal disease remain the leading killers of children under age five. While wealthy nations in the region can afford to regularly update vaccination programs and poor
countries can apply for international financial assistance, middle-
income countries often struggle to introduce new vaccines into their
national immunizations programs. Many lower-income families struggle to afford vaccination, and the number of doses Ministries of
Health can purchase for use in government-funded vaccination
programs is limited. As a result many children are not vaccinated
against the leading causes of pneumonia and diarrheal disease,
leaving thousands of children at risk for infection, illness and death.
The symposium brought together a committed core of scientists,
doctors and Ministry officials from Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine
and Iraq to review progress on vaccine introduction, highlight the
need for pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines and seek high-level
consideration of approaches to joint vaccine procurement in the
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Dr. John Clemens, Director-General of the International Vaccine
Sabin President Dr. Peter Hotez Provides
Testimony at FDA Hearing on Neglected Tropical
diseases (NTDs), Sabin President Dr. Peter Hotez advised the
agency to help product development partnerships (PDPs) navigate
the bureaucratic and economic barriersthat delay development and
distribution of treatments to affected populations.
"The FDA can help enormously by increasing its guidance and
mentorship to PDPs to help them meet the needs of national
regulatory authorities and the FDA as well as finding ways to
operationalize more efficiently," said Dr. Hotez.
"These organizations would also welcome increased financial support
for NTD product development and testing, and an expansion of FDA's
Orphan Grants Program in the Office of Orphan Products Development," he continued. The public hearing, held in September, was scheduled to provide advocates for patients with NTDs, academics, pharmaceutical companies and others an opportunity to present their views to the FDA review group. The group will then make recommendations to the Commissioner regarding appropriate preclinical studies, trial design, regulatory approaches, and optimal solutions to prevent, diagnose, and treat NTDs.
New Faces at Sabin Vaccine Institute Six new staff have joined the Sabin Vaccine Institute since the last issue of The Sabin Report
Program Coordinator, Sabin Vaccine Development Sofia Redford,
Program Coordinator, Vaccine Advocacy and
Education Christopher B. Nelson,
Director of the Coalition Against Typhoid
(CaT) Secretariat Jacqueline Mills,
Program Coordinator, CaT Secretariat Shannon Grahek,
Senior Program Officer, Sabin Vaccine
Development Valerie Fitton-Kane,
Senior Resource Development Officer, Global
Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases
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