APA Documentation: IN-TEXT CITATIONS
The APA’s in-text citations provide at least the author’s last name and the date of publication. For direct quotations and some paraphrases, a page number is given as well.
1. BASIC FORMAT FOR A QUOTATION Ordinarily, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the year of publication in parentheses. Put the page number (preceded by “p.”) in parentheses after the quotation.
Critser (2003) noted that despite growing numbers of overweight
Americans, many health care providers still “remain either in
ignorance or outright denial about the health danger to the poor
If the author is not named in the signal phrase, place the author’s name, the year, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation: (Critser, 2003, p. 5).
NOTE: APA style requires the year of publication in an in-text citation. Do not include a month, even if the source is listed by month and year. 2. BASIC FORMAT FOR A SUMMARY OR A PARAPHRASE Include the author’s last name and the year either in a signal phrase introducing the material or in parentheses following it. A page number or another locator is not required for a summary or a paraphrase, but include one if it would help readers find the passage in a long work.
According to Carmona (2004), the cost of treating obesity is
exceeded only by the cost of treating illnesses from tobacco use
The cost of treating obesity is exceeded only by the cost of treat-
ing illnesses from tobacco use (Carmona, 2004, para. 9).
3. A WORK WITH TWO AUTHORS Name both authors in the signal phrase or parentheses each time you cite the work. In the parentheses, use “&” between the authors’ names; in the signal phrase, use “and.”
According to Sothern and Gordon (2003), “Environmental factors
may contribute as much as 80% to the causes of childhood obe-
Obese children often engage in less physical activity (Sothern &
4. A WORK WITH THREE TO FIVE AUTHORS Identify all authors in the signal phrase or parentheses the first time you cite the source.
In 2003, Berkowitz, Wadden, Tershakovec, and Cronquist con-
cluded, “Sibutramine . . . must be carefully monitored in ado-
lescents, as in adults, to control increases in [blood pressure]
In subsequent citations, use the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in either the signal phrase or the parentheses.
As Berkowitz et al. (2003) advised, “Until more extensive safety
and efficacy data are available, . . . weight-loss medications
should be used only on an experimental basis for adolescents”
5. A WORK WITH SIX OR MORE AUTHORS Use the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or the parentheses.
McDuffie et al. (2002) tested 20 adolescents aged 12-16 over a
three-month period and found that orlistat, combined with behav-
ioral therapy, produced an average weight loss of 4.4 kg, or
6. UNKNOWN AUTHOR If the author is unknown, mention the work’s title in the signal phrase or give the first word or two of the title in the parenthetical citation. Titles of articles and chapters are put in quotation marks; titles of books and reports are italicized.
Children struggling to control their weight must also struggle
with the pressures of television advertising that, on the one
hand, encourages the consumption of junk food and, on the
other, celebrates thin celebrities (“Television,” 2002).
NOTE:In the rare case when “Anonymous” is specified as the author, treat it as if it were a real name: (Anonymous, 2001). In the list of references, also use the name Anonymous as author.
7. ORGANIZATION AS AUTHOR If the author is a government agency or other organization, name the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
Obesity puts children at risk for a number of medical complica-
tions, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea,
and orthopedic problems (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation,
If the organization has a familiar abbreviation, you may include it in brackets the first time you cite
the source and use the abbreviation alone in later citations.
8. TWO OR MORE WORKS IN THE SAME PARENTHESES When your parenthetical citation names two or more works, put them in the same order that they appear in the reference list, separated by semicolons.
Researchers have indicated that studies of pharmacological treat-
ments for childhood obesity are inconclusive (Berkowitz et al.,
9. AUTHORS WITH THE SAME LAST NAME To avoid confusion, use initials with the last names if your reference list includes two or more authors with the same last name.
Research by E. Smith (1989) revealed that . . .
10. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Interviews, memos, letters, e-mail, and similar unpublished person- to-person communications should be cited as follows:
One of Atkinson’s colleagues, who has studied the effect of the
media on children’s eating habits, has contended that advertisers
for snack foods will need to design ads responsibly for their
younger viewers (F. Johnson, personal communication, October 20,
Do not include personal communications in your reference list.
11. AN ELECTRONIC DOCUMENT When possible, cite an electronic document as you would any other document (using the author-date style).
Atkinson (2001) found that children who spent at least four hours
a day watching TV were less likely to engage in adequate
Electronic sources may lack authors’ names or dates. In addition, they may lack page numbers (required in some citations). Here are APA’s guidelines for handling sources without authors’ names, dates, or page numbers.
If no author is named, mention the title of the document in a signal phrase or give the first word or two of the title in parentheses (see also item 6). (If an organization serves as the author, see item 7.)
The body’s basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is a measure of its at-
rest energy requirement (“Exercise,” 2003).
When the date is unknown, APA recommends using the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”).
Attempts to establish a definitive link between television pro-
gramming and children’s eating habits have been problematic
No page numbers
APA ordinarily requires page numbers for quotations, and it recommends them for summaries or paraphrases from long sources. When an electronic source lacks stable numbered pages, your citation should include — if possible — information that will help readers locate the particular passage being cited.
When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the paragraph number preceded by
the symbol ¶ or by the abbreviation “para.”: (Hall, 2001, ¶ 5) or (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If neither a page nor a paragraph number is given and the document contains headings, cite the appropriate heading and indicate which paragraph under that heading you are referring to.
Hoppin and Taveras (2004) pointed out that several other med-
ications were classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration as
having the “potential for abuse” (Weight-Loss Drugs section,
NOTE: Electronic files using portable document format (PDF) often have stable page numbers. For such sources, give the page number in the parenthetical citation. 12. INDIRECT SOURCE If you use a source that was cited in another source (a secondary source), name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include it in your parenthetical citation, preceded by the words “as cited in.” In the following example, Critser is the secondary source.
Former surgeon general Dr. David Satcher described “a nation of
young people seriously at risk of starting out obese and dooming
themselves to the difficult task of overcoming a tough illness”
13. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR IN THE SAME YEAR When your list of references includes more than one work by the same author in the same year, use lowercase letters (“a,” “b,” and so on) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use those same letters with the year in the in-text citation.
Research by Durgin (2003b) has yielded new findings about the
role of counseling in treating childhood obesity.
APA Documentation: LIST OF REFERENCES
In APA style, the alphabetical list of works cited, which appears at the end of the paper, is titled "References." Following are models illustrating APA style for entries in the list of references. Observe all details: capitalization, punctuation, use of italics, and so on.
1. SINGLE AUTHOR: Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the author’s initial(s). Then give the date in parentheses. Perez, E. (2001). 2. MULTIPLE AUTHORS List up to six authors by last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&) between the names of two authors or, if there are more than two authors, before the name of the last author.
DuNann, D. W., & Koger, S. M. (2004).
Sloan, F. A., Stout, E. M., Whetten-Goldstein, K., & Liang, L. (2000).
If there are more than six authors, list the first six and “et al.” (meaning “and others”) to indicate that there are others. 3. ORGANIZATION AS AUTHOR When the author is an organization, begin with the name of the organization.
American Psychiatric Association. (2003).
NOTE:If the organization is also the publisher, see item 28. 4. UNKNOWN AUTHOR Begin the entry with the work’s title. Titles of books are italicized; titles of articles are neither italicized nor put in quotation marks. (For rules on capitalization of titles, click here.) Oxford essential world atlas. (2001).
Omega-3 fatty acids. (2004, November 23).
5. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR Use the author’s name for all entries. List the entries by year, the earliest first. 6. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR IN THE SAME YEAR List the works alphabetically by title. In the parentheses, following the year, add “a,” “b,” and so on. Use these same letters when giving the year in the in-text citation. (For advice on alphabetizing the list, click here.)
Durgin, P. A. (2003a). At-risk behaviors in children.
Durgin, P. A. (2003b). Treating obesity with psychotherapy.
Articles in periodicals
This section shows how to prepare an entry for an article in a periodical such as a scholarly journal, a magazine, or a newspaper. In addition to consulting the models in this section, you may need to refer to items 1–6 (general guidelines for listing authors).
NOTE: For articles on consecutive pages, provide the range of pages at the end of the citation (see item 7 for an example). When an article does not appear on consecutive pages, give all page numbers: A1, A17. 7. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY VOLUME Many professional journals continue page numbers throughout the year instead of beginning each issue with page 1; at the end of the year, the issues are collected in a volume. After the italicized title of the journal, give the volume number (also italicized), followed by the page numbers. Morawski, J. (2000). Social psychology a century ago. American 8. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL PAGINATED BY ISSUE When each issue of a journal begins with page 1, include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Italicize the volume number but not the issue number. Smith, S. (2003). Government and nonprofits in the modern age. 9. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE In addition to the year of publication, list the month and, for weekly magazines, the day. If there is a volume number, include it (italicized) after the title.
Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead therapy won’t help most kids. Science10. ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER Begin with the name of the author followed by the exact date of publication. (If the author is unknown, see also item 4.) Page numbers are introduced with “p.” (or “pp.”).
Lohr, S. (2004, December 3). Health care technology is a promise
unfinanced. The New York Times, p. C5.
11. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Letters to the editor appear in journals, magazines, and newspapers. Follow the appropriate model and insert the words “Letter to the editor” in brackets before the name of the periodical.
Carter, R. (2000, July). Shot in the dark? [Letter to the editor].
12. REVIEW Reviews of books and other media appear in a variety of periodicals. Follow the appropriate model for the periodical. For a review of a book, give the title of the review (if there is one), followed by the words “Review of the book” and the title of the book in brackets.
Gleick, E. (2000, December 14). The burdens of genius [Review of the
book The Last Samurai]. Time, 156, 171.
For a film review, write “Review of the motion picture,” and for a TV review, write “Review of the television program.” Treat other media in a similar way.
In addition to consulting the items in this section, you may need to refer to items 1–6 (general guidelines for listing authors).
13. BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK Begin with the author’s name, followed by the date and the book’s title. End with the place of publication and the name of the publisher. Take the information about the book from its title page and copyright page. If more than one place of publication is given, use only the first; if more than one date is given, use the most recent one.
Highmore, B. (2001). Everyday life and cultural theory. New York:
14. BOOK WITH AN EDITOR For a book with an editor but no author, begin with the name of the editor (or editors) followed by the abbreviation “Ed.” (or “Eds.”) in parentheses.
Bronfen, E., & Kavka, M. (Eds.). (2001). Feminist consequences: Theoryfor a new century. New York: Columbia University Press.
For a book with an author and an editor, begin with the author’s name. Give the editor’s name in parentheses after the title of the book, followed by the abbreviation “Ed.” (or “Eds.”).
Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). New York:
15. TRANSLATION After the title, name the translator, followed by the abbreviation “Trans.,” in parentheses. Add the original date of the work’s publication in parentheses at the end of the entry.
Steinberg, M. D. (2003). Voices of revolution, 1917. (M. Schwartz,
Trans.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (Original work
16. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST Include the number of the edition in parentheses after the title.
Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child
(5th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
17. ARTICLE OR CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK Begin with the author, year of publication, and title of the article or chapter. Then write “In” and give the editor’s name, followed by “Ed.” in parentheses; the title of the book; and the page numbers of the article or chapter in parentheses. End with the book’s publication information.
Luban, D. (2000). The ethics of wrongful obedience. In D. L. Rhode
(Ed.), Ethics in practice: Lawyers’ roles, responsibilities, and regu-lation (pp. 94-120). New York: Oxford University Press.
18. MULTIVOLUME WORK Give the number of volumes after the title.
Luo, J. Encyclopedia of contemporary Chinese civilization (Vols. 1-2).
Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
This section shows how to prepare reference list entries for a variety of electronic sources, including articles in online periodicals and databases, Web documents, and e-mail.
19. ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE PERIODICALWhen citing online articles, follow the guidelines for printed articles (see items 7–12), giving whatever information is available in the online source. If the article also appears in a printed journal, a URL is not required; instead, include “Electronic version” in brackets after the title of the article.
Whitmeyer, J. M. (2000). Power through appointment [Electronic
version]. Social Science Research, 29(4), 535-555.
If there is no print version, include the date you accessed the source and the article’s URL.
Ashe, D. D., & McCutcheon, L. E. (2001). Shyness, loneliness, and
attitude toward celebrities. Current Research in Social Psychology,6(9). Retrieved July 3, 2001, from http://www.uiowa.edu/
NOTE: When you have retrieved an article from a newspaper’s searchable Web site, give the URL for the site, not for the exact source.
Cary, B. (2001, June 18). Mentors of the mind. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved July 5, 2001, from http://www.latimes.com
20. ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE To cite an article from a library’s subscription database, include the publication information from the source (see items 7–12). End the citation with your date of access, the name of the database, and the document number (if applicable).
Holliday, R. E., & Hayes, B. K. (2001). Dissociating automatic and
intentional processes in children’s eyewitness memory. Journal ofExperimental Child Psychology, 75(1), 1-5. Retrieved February 21,
2001, from Expanded Academic ASAP database (A59317972).
21. NONPERIODICAL WEB DOCUMENT To cite a nonperiodical Web document, such as a report, list as many of the following elements as are available.
Date of publication (if there is no date, use “n.d.”)
A URL that will take readers directly to the source
In the first model, the source has both an author and a date; in the second, the source lacks a date.
Cain, A., & Burris, M. (1999, April). Investigation of the use of mobilephones while driving. Retrieved January 15, 2000, from
Archer, Z. (n.d.). Exploring nonverbal communication. Retrieved July
18, 2001, from http://zzyx.ucsc.edu/~archer
If a source has no author, begin with the title and follow it with the date in parentheses.
NOTE: If you retrieved the source from a university program’s Web site, name the program in your retrieval statement.
Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1997). Evolutionary psychology: A primer.
Retrieved July 5, 2001, from the University of California, Santa
Barbara, Center for Evolutionary Psychology Web site:
22. CHAPTER OR SECTION IN A WEB DOCUMENT Begin with the author, the year of publication, and the title of the chapter or section. Then write “In” and give the title of the document, followed by any identifying information in parentheses. End with your date of access and the URL for the chapter or section.
Heuer, R. J., Jr. (1999). Keeping an open mind. In Psychology ofintelligence analysis (chap. 6). Retrieved July 7, 2001, from
23. E-MAIL E-mail messages and other personal communications are not included in the list of references. 24. ONLINE POSTING If an online posting is not maintained in an archive, cite it as a personal communication in the text of your paper and do not include it in the list of references. If the posting can be retrieved from an archive, give as much information as is available.
Eaton, S. (2001, June 12). Online transactions [Msg 2]. Message posted
25. COMPUTER PROGRAM Add the words “Computer software” in brackets after the title of the program.
Kaufmann, W. J., III, & Comins, N. F. (2003). Discovering the universe
(Version 6.0) [Computer software]. New York: Freeman.
Other sources 26. DISSERTATION ABSTRACT
Yoshida, Y. (2001). Essays in urban transportation (Doctoral disserta-
tion, Boston College, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International,27. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT
U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Statistical abstract of the United States.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
28. REPORT FROM A PRIVATE ORGANIZATION If the publisher is the author, give the word “Author” as the publisher. If the report has an author, begin with the author’s name, and name the publisher at the end.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for thetreatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.). Washington,
29. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Stahl, G. (Ed.). (2002). Proceedings of CSCL ’02: Computer support forcollaborative learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
30. MOTION PICTURE To cite a motion picture (film, video, or DVD), list the director and the year of the picture’s release. Give the title, followed by “Motion picture” in brackets, the country where it was made, and the name of the studio. If the motion picture is difficult to find, include instead the name and address of its distributor.
Soderbergh, S. (Director). (2000). Traffic [Motion picture]. United
Spurlock, M. (Director). (2004). Super size me [Motion picture].
(Available from IDP Films, 1133 Broadway, Suite 926, New York,
31. TELEVISION PROGRAM To cite a television program, list the producer and the date it was aired. Give the title, followed by “Television broadcast” in brackets, the city, and the television network or service.
Pratt, C. (Executive Producer). (2001, December 2). Face the nation
[Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.
For a television series, use the year in which the series was produced, and follow the title with “Television series” in brackets. For an episode in a series, list the writer and director and the year. After the episode title put “Television series episode” in brackets. Follow with information about the series.
Janows, J. (Executive Producer). (2000). Culture shock [Television
Loeterman, B. (Writer), & Gale, B. (Director). (2000). Real justice
[Television series episode]. In M. Sullivan (Executive Producer),
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