A disease of high blood glucose (sugar) levels
Typically hereditary, the diabetes gene is activated with certain situations (obesity, age,
stress, injury, sleep deprivation, smoking)
We get energy from food, primarily in the form of glucose All food turns into glucose, and we have glucose stored internally in our liver
A gland behind the stomach called the pancreas should make enough of the hormone
Insulin unlocks the cells (the smallest component of the body) and allows glucose to enter With diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or use insulin efficiently
Without enough insulin, the glucose piles up in the bloodstream and can cause many problems
What are the goals of diabetes self-management?
Lower your glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol to a safe level
If your glucose is less than 70 or more than 250 for 2 days If your glucose is less than 180 and you can’t keep food down
(your medication dose may need changing)
If you are vomiting or have diarrhea
If you are not tolerating your medication
Check glucose at least every 4 hours Drink plenty of sugar-free, caffeine-free liquids (examples include water, tea, broth)
You still need small amounts of carbohydrate food for healing
If you take diabetes medication and glucose is more than 180, continue the usual dose
The Keys of Diabetes Self Management*
Balance, timing, eating from a variety of nutrient rich foods and
being carbohydrate aware (not cutting them out!).
See “Eat Better & Feel the Difference” flyer.
Helps control the amount of glucose and increases good (HDL)
cholesterol. 30 minutes walking is equal to a pill for diabetes
Test glucose before breakfast and before dinner, at the least.
Premeal goal: 70 to 120 Two hours after meal goal: less than 160
Stress raises glucose and blood pressure. Stress can come from
pain, lack of sleep, work, planning for a trip, steroids, etc.
Secretagogues – makes the pancreas release insulin (Glucotrol, Glyburide, Amaryl, Starlix, Prandin) *Risk of hypoglycemia; take 15-30 minutes before a meal Biguanides – decrease liver glucose production (Glucophage)
Taking Medication *Risk of diarrhea, nausea (take WITH food to minimize)
Which ones are you *Takes a couple of weeks to reach full effect
Thiazolidinediones – decreases insulin resistance (Actos, Avandia)
*Risk of swelling, weight gain, 4-8 weeks for full effect.
May increase risk of heart issues when used with insulin.
Insulin: the hormone; know its peak time to avoid low glucose
checking with your BASAL = background (Lantus, Levemir, NPH) BOLUS = mealtime or correction (Novolog, Humalog, Regular)
HYPOGLYCEMIA (low glucose); less than 70 Causes: medications, missed meal, exercise, alcohol; Signs: Shakiness, hunger, sleepiness, weakness, headache, irritability, sweating; Treatment: Sugar! Rule of 15 (15 grams sugar, wait 15
minutes, retest. If low, 15 grams of sugar, retest, if above 70, eat)
Problem Solving HYPERGLYCEMIA (high glucose); above 200
Causes: too little medicine, stress, food choices; Signs: tired, increased urination, poor wound healing; Treatment: medications
Certain tests reduce your risk of complications (yearly exams for
eyes, feet, cholesterol; regular A1C tests and dental visits)
*Adapted from AADE7 TM Self-Care Behaviors. Symbols created by THERESA GARNERO 2007
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INTRODUCTION Addison’s disease, an endocrine disorder, bears the name of the doctor that first diagnosed the condition in humans, Dr Thomas Addison of Guy’s Hospital, London. He originally recorded the condition in 1855 and referred to it as a progressive destruction of the adrenal glands, the result being a deficiency in the secretion of hormones produced by the two adrenal glands. This con