Diabetes transitions class

 A disease of high blood glucose (sugar) levels  Typically hereditary, the diabetes gene is activated with certain situations (obesity, age, stress, injury, sleep deprivation, smoking)  We get energy from food, primarily in the form of glucose  All food turns into glucose, and we have glucose stored internally in our liver  A gland behind the stomach called the pancreas should make enough of the hormone  Insulin unlocks the cells (the smallest component of the body) and allows glucose to enter  With diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin or use insulin efficiently  Without enough insulin, the glucose piles up in the bloodstream and can cause many problems What are the goals of diabetes self-management?  Lower your glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol to a safe level  If your glucose is less than 70 or more than 250 for 2 days  If your glucose is less than 180 and you can’t keep food down (your medication dose may need changing)  If you are vomiting or have diarrhea  If you are not tolerating your medication  Check glucose at least every 4 hours  Drink plenty of sugar-free, caffeine-free liquids (examples include water, tea, broth)  You still need small amounts of carbohydrate food for healing  If you take diabetes medication and glucose is more than 180, continue the usual dose The Keys of Diabetes Self Management*
Balance, timing, eating from a variety of nutrient rich foods and being carbohydrate aware (not cutting them out!). See “Eat Better & Feel the Difference” flyer. Helps control the amount of glucose and increases good (HDL) cholesterol. 30 minutes walking is equal to a pill for diabetes Test glucose before breakfast and before dinner, at the least. Premeal goal: 70 to 120
Two hours after meal goal: less than 160
Stress raises glucose and blood pressure. Stress can come from pain, lack of sleep, work, planning for a trip, steroids, etc. Secretagogues – makes the pancreas release insulin
(Glucotrol, Glyburide, Amaryl, Starlix, Prandin)
*Risk of hypoglycemia; take 15-30 minutes before a meal
Biguanides – decrease liver glucose production (Glucophage)
Taking Medication *Risk of diarrhea, nausea (take WITH food to minimize)  Which ones are you *Takes a couple of weeks to reach full effect Thiazolidinediones – decreases insulin resistance (Actos, Avandia)
*Risk of swelling, weight gain, 4-8 weeks for full effect. May increase risk of heart issues when used with insulin. Insulin: the hormone; know its peak time to avoid low glucose
checking with your BASAL = background (Lantus, Levemir, NPH)
BOLUS = mealtime or correction (Novolog, Humalog, Regular)

HYPOGLYCEMIA (low glucose); less than 70
Causes: medications, missed meal, exercise, alcohol; Signs:
Shakiness, hunger, sleepiness, weakness, headache, irritability,
sweating; Treatment: Sugar! Rule of 15 (15 grams sugar, wait 15
minutes, retest. If low, 15 grams of sugar, retest, if above 70, eat) Problem Solving HYPERGLYCEMIA (high glucose); above 200
Causes: too little medicine, stress, food choices; Signs: tired, increased urination, poor wound healing; Treatment: medications Certain tests reduce your risk of complications (yearly exams for eyes, feet, cholesterol; regular A1C tests and dental visits) *Adapted from AADE7 TM Self-Care Behaviors. Symbols created by THERESA GARNERO 2007

Source: http://www.tgarnero.com/TIPS-Diabetes101.pdf


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Microsoft word - 52.addison's disease

INTRODUCTION Addison’s disease, an endocrine disorder, bears the name of the doctor that first diagnosed the condition in humans, Dr Thomas Addison of Guy’s Hospital, London. He originally recorded the condition in 1855 and referred to it as a progressive destruction of the adrenal glands, the result being a deficiency in the secretion of hormones produced by the two adrenal glands. This con

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