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Primary batteries –
Part 4:
Safety of lithium batteries

Partie 4:Sécurité des piles au lithium  IEC 2000  Copyright - all rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic ormechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.
International Electrotechnical Commission Commission Electrotechnique Internationale International Electrotechnical Commission Sampling, test sequence and requirements . 10 Sampling, test sequence and requirements . 15 Safety precautions during design of equipment . 247.1.1 Safety precautions during handling of batteries . 24 Safety precautions during packaging, handling, transportation, display, storageand disposal . 267.3.1 Annex A (informative) Guidelines for the achievement of safety of lithium batteries . 29 Annex B (informative) Guidelines for designers of equipment using lithium batteries . 30 Annex C (informative) Additional information on display and storage. 32 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION PRIMARY BATTERIES –
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries
1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promoteinternational co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. Tothis end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation isentrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with mayparticipate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaisingwith the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the InternationalOrganization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between thetwo organizations.
2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representationfrom all interested National Committees.
3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form of standards, technical specifications, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the NationalCommittees in that sense.
4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Anydivergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearlyindicated in the latter.
5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.
6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard IEC 60086-4 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 35:Primary cells and batteries.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 1996, and constitutesa technical revision.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents: Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report onvoting indicated in the above table.
This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.
Annexes A, B and C are for information only.
IEC 60086 consists of the following parts, under the general title Primary batteries: Part 5: Safety of batteries with aqueous electrolyte The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
The concept of safety is closely related to safeguarding the integrity of people and property.
This standard specifies requirements and tests for lithium batteries and has been prepared in accordance with ISO/IEC guidelines, taking into account all relevant national and international Lithium batteries are different from conventional primary batteries using aqueous electrolyte in that they contain flammable materials.
Consequently, it is important to take safety precautions very carefully during design,production, distribution, use, and disposal of lithium batteries. Based on such specialcharacteristics, lithium batteries for consumer applications were initially small in size and hadlow power output. There were also lithium batteries with high power output which were usedfor special industrial applications and were characterized as being “technician replaceable”.
The first edition of IEC 60086-4 (1996) was drafted to accommodate the above situation.
However, from around the end of the 1980s, lithium batteries with high power output havestarted to be widely used in the consumer replacement market, mainly as a power source incamera applications.
Since the demand for such lithium batteries with high power output has significantly increasedin recent years, various manufacturers have started to produce these types of lithiumbatteries. As a consequence of this situation, the safety aspects for lithium batteries with highpower output have been included in this second edition of IEC 60086-4.
Safety is a balance between freedom from hazard and other requirements to be met by theproduct. There can be no absolute safety. Even at the highest level of safety, the product canonly be relatively safe. In this respect, decision-making is based on risk evaluation and safetyjudgement.
As safety will pose different problems, it is impossible to provide a set of precise provisionsand recommendations that will apply in every case. However, this standard, when followed ona judicious “use when applicable” basis, will provide reasonably consistent standards forsafety.
Part 4: Safety of lithium batteries
This International Standard specifies tests and requirements for primary lithium batteries to ensure their safe operation under intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse.
Normative reference
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text,constitute provisions of this International Standard. For dated references, subsequentamendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply. However, parties toagreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibilityof applying the most recent edition of the normative documents indicated below. For undatedreferences, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of IECand ISO maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.
IEC 60086-1:1996, Primary batteries – Part 1: General 3 Definitions
For the purpose of this part of IEC 60086, the definitions given in IEC 60086-1 (some of whichare repeated below for convenience) and the following definitions apply.
battery (primary)
one or more primary cells, including case, terminals and marking
button battery
small round battery, where the overall height is less than the diameter; batteries complying
with IEC 60086-1, figures 2, 3 and 4
cell (primary)
a source of electrical energy obtained by the direct conversion of chemical energy, that is not
designed to be charged by any other electrical source
consumer batteries
batteries readily available in the commercial retail market and that are considered user
replaceable, i.e. replaceable without the need of special tools
cylindrical battery
primary battery with cylindrical geometry where the overall height is equal to or greater than
the diameter; batteries complying with IEC 60086-1, figures 1A and 1B
depth of discharge (DOD)
percentage of rated capacity discharged from a battery



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