Final part b-94
AUSTRALIAN CHEMISTRY OLYMPIAD
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You are allowed 10 minutes
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to complete the questions.
You are not
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electronic calculator and molecular models.
You must attempt all
provide clearly laid out working
and sufficient explanation
to show how you
reached your conclusions.
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On holidays in the Kosciusko National Park a biochemist from Darwin decides to cook some
lunch having just walked to the summit of Mt. Kosciusko. Now that she is 2213 m higherthan when she normally boils an egg, she notices her "10 minute" egg is undercooked.
Coincidently, when at home her research involves determining activation energies requiredto denature certain proteins. She remembers that the Ea for egg albumin is around85 kJ mol–1. How long should she have cooked the egg at this altitude?
[Hint: The pressure between a higher point P1 and a lower point P2 within a column of gas
where, M is the molecular weight of gas in kgmol–1, g = 9.81 ms–2, R =8.31 JK–1mol–1, T is
temperature in Kelvin. Assume the denaturation process to be 1st order kinetics.
[Enthalpy of vaporisation of water is 44 kJmol–1]
An element X exists in 3 forms—allotropes, designated X(a), X(b), and X(c), all of which are
A sample of X(a) is placed in an atmosphere of oxygen. The sample glows green and
eventually bursts into flames forming a single oxide (α).
A sample of X(a) is placed in an atmosphere of chlorine. The sample bursts into flames forming
a mixture of two chlorides (β) and (γ).
A sample of X(a) is dropped into liquid bromine. A violent explosion occurs and a mixture of
two bromides (δ) and (ε) is formed.
When X(a) is heated at 260°C in an inert atmosphere it slowly turns to X(b). When X(a) is
heated at 200°C under a pressure of 12000 atm it slowly turns to X(c). When either X(b) orX(c) are vaporised by heat in an inert atmosphere and allowed to condense the product isX(a).
Draw or otherwise explain the structures of the 3 forms of X.
Give the formula and structural formula for α.
(iii) β is a liquid. Give its structural formula.
(iv) γ is an ionic solid made up of a pentaatomic cation and a heptaatomic anion. Draw structural
formulas for each of the ions and give the shape and hybridisation of the central atom.
γ in the vapour phase is an uncharged hexaatomic molecule. Draw its structural formula and
give the shape and hybridisation of the central atom.
(vi) δ is a liquid. Give its structural formula.
(vii) ε is an ionic solid made up of a pentaatomic cation and a monoatomic anion. Draw the
structural formula of the cation and give the shape and hybridisation of the central atom.
When heated together under reduced pressure at about 500°C sulfur and selenium form a
mixture of several binary compounds. Most abundant compounds in these mixtures arecrown-shaped eight-membered ring molecules with a general formula SenS8-n and thefollowing shape.
Describe the structural isomers of Se4S4 . Which of these will exist as (not necessarily isolable)
) is a non-sedative antidepressant drug. Its synthesis is described below.
1,2-Dichlorobenzene is reacted with benzoyl chloride(PhCOCl) in the presence of anhydrous
AlCl3 to afford (2
) (C13H8OCl2). (2
) Reacts with diethyl butan-1,4-dioate in the presence of
a strong base, potassium tert-butoxide to afford the ester (3
). (C21H20O4Cl2). (3
) Can be
converted to (4
) (C16H12O2Cl2) by treatment with strong acid. Compound (4) is soluble in
sodium bicarbonate. Catalytic hydrogenation of (4
) yields (5
) (C16H14O2Cl2). Reaction of
) with SOCl2 followed by anhydrous AlCl3 yields (6
). (C16H12OCl2). The latter compound
gives a positive 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine test but does not react with either Fehlings of
Tollens reagents. (6
) Reacts with methylamine to afford (7
) which being unstable is
immediately reduced with NaBH4 in methanol to afford (1
Deduce structures of compounds (2
) - (7
Write suitable mechanisms to account for the transformation of (5
) and (6
Silver nitrate is one of the most important and widely used titrimetric reagents. It is available in
very high purity and is used for the determination of anions that form insoluble silver salts.
Titrimetric methods based on silver nitrate are called argentometric methods.
In this question, you will construct a titration curve for the titration of 50.00 mL of 0.00500 M
NaBr with 0.01000 M AgNO3. Ksp(AgBr) = 5.2 x 10–13
The titration curve should have pAg as the y-axis and volume AgNO3 added (mL) as the x-axis.
Calculate pAg for the following volumes of added AgNO3 and use these points to carefullydraw your curve. Graph paper is available.
The Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) recommends a Volhard argentometric
titration for the analysis of the insecticide heptachlor (C10H5Cl7).
In the Volhard method, the following procedure is followed:
The sample would be dissolved in some way and the chloride is precipitated by addition ofexcess standard silver nitrate solution.
The excess silver ions are determined by titration with a standard solution of potassiumthiocyanate:
A small amount of iron(III) is added as an indicator to detect the equivalence point. Thesolution turns red with the first slight excess of thiocyanate ion:
The titration must be carried out in slightly acidic solution to prevent the formation of iron(III)hydroxide.
According to the AOAC, the percentage of heptachlor is given by:
where mL Ag and mL SCN and CAg and CSCN are the volumes and analytical concentrations
of silver nitrate and potassium thiocyanate respectively.
What does this calculation reveal about the stoichiometry of the heptachlor Volhard titration?
For the Volhard titration to be accurate, the observed endpoint should correspond exactly to the
equivalence point ie when the amount of added thiocyanate is exactly equal to the amountof silver ions to be analysed. Any difference between the endpoint and equivalence pointrepresents a "titration error".
It has been found from experiment that the average observer can just detect the red colour of
Fe(SCN)2+ when its concentration is 6.4 x 10–6 M.
In a titration of 50.0 mL of 0.050 M AgNO3 with 0.100 M KSCN, what concentration of Fe3+
should be used to reduce the titration error to zero?
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