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國立台北師範學院九十三學年度 課程與教學研究所博士班招生考試

國立台北師範學院九十三學年度 課程與教學研究所博士班招生考試 (共四題,每題廿五分,合計一百分:請於答題本上作答,作答時勿須抄題 Instruction:
Please read the following essays carefully. After each reading, please give an English abstract in 50~150 words, and then write a Chinese abstract around 100~200 words. Following these two abstracts, please give your own comments briefly either in English or in Chinese. 1. One of the striking features of the competing curriculum is that it is a political and social voice that finds expression within the confines of the classroom in opposition to the standard curriculum and/or in conjunction with it. What is not clear, however, is the primary sources of the competing curriculum. A microsystemic relationship? A mesosystem? An exosystem? The macrosystem? All of the preceding? It appears that the bearer of the competing curriculum may knowingly participate in the implementation of the standard curriculum where the execution of the task may inadvertently introduce the competing curriculum. That is to say, how a teacher presents ideas may create a dynamic that is the source of incidental learning for students. With such an interaction between both curriculum it is hard to know which ecological system is primarily responsible for the teacher’s behavior or the students’ incidental learning. (25%) 2. The various genres of educational liberalism (technocratic, neoromantic, emancipatory) are based on a set of cultural assumptions that were also the based of the Industrial Revolution. These assumptions include equating change with progress, viewing the individual as the basic social unit, and an anthropocentric view of human/nature relationships. These assumptions, in turn, led to a simplistic and distorted way of understanding tradition, ignoring the different cultural epistemologies and moral systems, and viewing the different systems of moral reciprocity essential to viable communities as a limitation on individual freedom and progress. The technocratic liberals, with their more mechanistic and elitist orientation, appear to be the most closely connected with the commodification orientation of the Industrial Revolution, but the other traditions of educational liberalism, with their anthropocentrism and continual quest for individually authored ideas and values, contributed to the form of individual subjectivity that lacked the deep attachment to place and community essential to resisting the spread of market- 3. When the work on teaching effects was under fire, research-supported recommendations for teaching were replaced by a variety of approaches, described variously (loosely) as Socratic, progressive, constructivist, pragmatist, and Deweyian. These approaches all claim to be taking account of recent research on learning, which stresses the importance of students’ active engagement. Different lines of work---cognitive and situative—are associated with contemporary constructivist approaches, approaches to teaching differ in what they mean by “active engagement” and in what role they believe the teacher should play in the classrooms. From a cognitive perspective, “active engagement” means that the student uses his or her existing cognitive structures to make sense of the welter of signals coming through the sense. From the situative perspective, in contrast, the student’s active engagement is a connection to an ongoing social process, such as serving as an apprentice to a more knowledgeable member of the community….Correspondingly, teaching becomes creating learning environments for individual students to explore or fostering communities of learning, respectively. A modern behaviorist might even agree that students should be actively engaged, meaning that instruction must give students opportunities to receive feedback on their responses to the teacher. Teaching, as well as learning, has come to be seen as being more dependent on social and historical context. For some scholars, this expanded focus implies a redirection of research on teaching toward studies of individual teaches in their particular settings (Connelly & Clandinin, 1996). Such a position resembles the postmodern tenet that general knowledge is vain quest and has provoked a parallel rebuttal, namely that the lack of infallible knowledge about each particular situation does not preclude the productive use of information about teaching across a wide variety 4. Piaget (1975) was a proponent of the constructivist view of learning, which advocates learning as a process of change. Through simultaneous processes of assimilation and accommodation, new information is added to an existing repertoire of knowledge. Assimilation is a process by which knowledge is restructured so it can be integrated in to existing schema. Accommodation is the process that allows practitioners to restructure knowledge by making modifications to existing schemata. When knowledge is constructed that correlates to existing Two basic principles of constructivism are (a) what a person knows is actively assembled by the learner (Brooks & Brooks, 1993) and (b) learning serves an adaptive function of storage of useful information. The following learning experiences are appropriate for a constructivist program: z Emphasis in learning as reflective thinking and productivity: A fundamental goal should be the ability to perform relevant tasks in variety of effective ways. z Context-rich learning: Learning should focus on authentic activities, allow for student collaboration in exploring and evaluating ideas, and provide learning experiences that foster communication and access to real-world examples. z Access to models of the skills appropriate to the learning situation, ideally in an A constructivist, then, is a practitioner who z Believes all knowledge is constructed or invented by the learner z Involves learners in active manipulations of meanings, numbers, and patterns z Believes learning is nonlinear z Provides students with the tools of empowerment: Concepts, heuristic procedures, self- z Believes learning occurs most effectively through guided discovery, meaningful application, By adhering to such an ideal, the facilitator subscribes to the purpose of the guide, a purpose that fosters change; allows learners to progress at a pace indicative of experience, knowledge, and interest; and supports growth in reflective thinking. (25%)


Diti research

Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging (DITI) research Here is a selection of the growing body of research supporting the use of DITI for early diagnosis of abnormalities and monitoring of healing. Here is just a small sample: Gautherie, M., et al. (1983). Thermobiological assessment of benign and malignant breast diseases. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology , (8)147, pp

Para vencer.doc

Documento de Trabajo Nº 111 ISSN 1810-584X Relevamiento principales debilidades en los Derechos de las Personas que viven con VIH/SIDA en el Paraguay Fundación Vencer BASE Investigaciones Sociales Noviembre, 2004 Contenido Breve aproximación a la evolución del VIH/SIDA en el Paraguay. 7 Indicadores del crecimiento potencial. 7 Evolución, crisis de desabas

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