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sores and pain whilst passing urine or defecating.
diagnose herpes by examining the affected area or or sharp objects containing HIV-infected blood.
Treatment for Trichomonas
else take a swab from the blister or sores themselves with teeth, fingernails or jewellery. Check The tingling sensation can be an indication of a future d Transmission via donated blood or blood clotting Trichomonas will not go on its own. If treatment is and send it to the lab for testing. This may be painful the condom packet for any tears or holes.
d Store condoms in an appropriate place: outbreak. Usually the first outbreak is the worst and factors. However, this is now very rare in developed delayed the risk of complications is increased as well just for a short while. There is also a blood test that Ano-genital herpes is a common Sexually Acquired it may last from 2-4 weeks. Symptoms usually subside HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV
countries, including Malta, as blood is screened for Trichomonas is a tiny protozoa that acquired through
as transmitting the infection to your sexual partner/s.
not too hot, cold or humid such as glove may be carried out to detect antibodies against the Thrush is a very common fungal infection which can
Infection caused by two types of virus: HSV1 and
in the following attacks and the sores/blisters get is a virus that attacks the immune system. The virus unprotected sex and by the sharing of sex toys.
A course of antibiotics will prescribed by the doctor virus. There is no test that can tell you when you have develop when you are pregnant, frequently wear tight, HSV2. Either virus can affect both males and females
may eventually cause AIDS-Acquired Immune and should be taken as instructed. You will be advised acquired the virus or from whom. It would also be synthetic clothing, take antibiotics, have uncontrolled at the ano-genital area, the mouth, nose, eyes, gums Therefore, you CANNOT acquire HIV through:
Deficiency Syndrome. The progress from HIV to diabetes or are immunosuppressed, are undergoing Signs and Symptoms
to take the antibiotics on a full stomach and to avoid There are several practical things that you can do
important to book a Sexually Acquired Infections screen and fingers. The virus can enter the body through AIDS may take up to several years, depending on Kissing, hugging, touching, shaking hands chemotherapy or use irritants such as vaginal deodorants drinking alcohol during the treatment and for 48 hours Make sure that the condom’s expiry date to reduce the discomfort whilst experiencing an
in the near future to exclude any other acquired The majority of infected males and females do not moist tender linings or minute cracks in the skin. Once one’s lifestyle, health and treatment provided.
after as you might feel unwell. Inform the doctor if infections. Herpes increases the chance of acquiring d If allergic to latex condoms use polyurethane inside the body the Herpes virus remains in the body you are pregnant or else breastfeeding so that HIV due to the breakdown of skin surfaces which offer through out our lives. It can remain dormant in the Women may experience: itching, irritation and redness
d Wrap some ice in clean small towel and apply to Women may experience: unusual vaginal
the doctor can decide what treatment to give.
How is HIV acquired?
body causing no symptoms but it can still be around the ano-genital area, have a whitish, thick, curdy the affected area. Never put ice directly on the skin discharge, unpleasant vaginal smell, soreness, If you are on the Pill inform your doctor/nurse How to put a condom on?
transmitted to partner(s). If Herpes becomes active, HIV can enter the body through open cuts, sores or discharge often looking like cottage cheese and d Cool showers can help in soothing the blisters or You should refrain from any kind of sex, even with a redness, itching in and around the vagina,vulvar so that he/she can inform you on alternative breaks in the skin; through mucous membranes, such Signs and symptoms
it can cause outbreaks. In some people outbreaks discomfort or pain whilst passing urine or having sex.
condom especially if you have any of the above itching, pain whilst passing urine and uncomfortable as inside the anus or vagina or through direct injection.
d Wash the affected area with salty water i.e. one symptoms in order to reduce the possibility of passing Men may experience: redness or red patches, itching,
There are several ways by which this can happen:
There is no clear evidence what brings about recurrent burning and irritation under the foreskin or on the tip of Complications in women: if left untreated Trichomonas
d skin rashes either on face, genitals or anus attacks. Strong light, local injuries, long-term stress Whilst washing be gentle and dab to dry yourself penis, have a discharge that looks like cottage cheese may cause: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, premature Sexual contact with an infected person: Anal or d increase in herpes ulcers or thrush infections in and immunosuppression are though to be precipitating which can smell nasty and cause difficulty in pulling delivery in pregnancy and babies with low birth weight.
vaginal intercourse without a condom with an If urinating is painful, urinate in warm Herpes in pregnancy
infected partner/s. Even though unprotected oral Men may experience: burning after passing urine,
sex is less risky than unprotected vaginal and anal Thrush can be diagnosed easily by looking at the affecting some discharge from penis and itching in the urethra.
Herpes can be acquired through: vaginal or anal
d Wash hands frequently to prevent bacterial infections Women can be treated in pregnancy with antiviral sex, the risk is not zero. The risk of acquiring HIV d swollen lymph glands in the neck, groin or armpits area and by taking a sample of cells from the vagina sex and by sharing sex toys, skin to skin contact tablets if they have an attack of Herpes. If you acquire infection is greater for the person giving oral sex during an internal examination or from the male’s genital Trichomonas must be diagnosed with a test. You could during sexual activity, especially when the affected d Drink plenty of fluids, wear loose cotton clothing ano-genital Herpes before pregnancy there is only a rather than the person receiving oral sex. The risk area including under the foreskin, and examining it under still have Trichomonas even if your partner has tested area is not or could not be covered with a condom or and use pain relief tablets when necessary.
low probability of giving to your baby and a caesarean You should have a GU screen if:
of acquiring HIV increases when the person If you experience any of the above symptoms it does the microscope. In some people thrush resolves on its negative. The doctor can get a preliminary result by dam, having oral sex with someone who has a cold performing oral sex has cuts or sores around or not necessarily mean that you have HIV/AIDS.
d You or your partner/s have any symptoms own. Whilst testing for thrush, the doctor will offer a taking some of the vaginal cells/discharge or urethral sore or it about to get one and touching your own or If you experience some or all of the above If you get ano-genital Herpes in the first The only way to know if you have aquired HIV is to If you or your partner/s had unprotected screen for all sexually acquired infection to exclude any sample and examining it under the microscope.
your partner’s genital area with herpes on the hand receiving oral sex ejaculates in the mouth Confirmatory tests are then carried out at the lab. There or fingers.You cannot get Herpes by hugging, from is no way of telling how long you have had the infection swimming pools or sharing of clothing.
initiated within 5 days of the attack so that infections If the first outbreak of Ano-genital Herpes Treatment is usually simple. For women antifungal
d If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy another Sexually Acquired Infection.
creams, pessaries, pills or a combination may be utilised Specialist physicians prescribe antiretroviral Sometimes Trichomonas can be observed during a Signs and Symptoms
tablets are given by the doctor in order to acquire the virus during birth thus it is as treatment. For men there are anti-fungal creams. It prevent the virus from replicating or reducing the time drugs which help slow down the HIV infection is important to take the treatment as instructed by the routine cervical smear test. If this arises you will be Precautions to prevent future
The majority of the people who have acquired the advisable to have a caesarean birth.
the outbreak will last. It is essential to take all the by reducing the viral load and increasing the doctor. Inform your doctor if you think you are pregnant sent to the GU clinic for further tests for Trichomonas.
virus never have symptoms themselves. However Always talk to your Obstetrician regarding your attack.
tablets as instructed by the doctor. The treatment does number of CD4 T-cells which help the immune or breastfeeding as you cannot take oral treatment.
If you have a routine smear test this does not mean they can still pass it on to their partner(s). Symptoms Whilst having blisters and sores are present you are not kill the virus, but helps the healing process or system fight against opportunistic infections.
Some antifungal preparations can interfere with you are being tested for all Sexually Acquired Infections.
d Use condoms correctly and every time you may arise even after weeks, months and possibly highly infectious, thus it is important to: reduces the possibility of infecting partner/s. People However, it is of great importance to take the diaphragms, caps and latex condoms. Inform your doctor If you have Trichomonas you should also get tested for years after acquiring the virus. Therefore, having the who experience repeated attacks (more that six in a mother before or during birth, or through medications as prescribed and regularly to regarding your contraceptive choice for further advice.
other Sexually Acquired Infections. Having Trichomonas symptoms today it does not mean you have just came d Limit your number of partners and be faithful year) can be offered a long term schedule of tablets breastfeeding. However the risks of mother-to- maintain a successful treatment regimen and to help d Avoid genital contact even with a condom as can make you more at risk of acquiring HIV or passing Health Promotion & Disease
into contact with the virus recently. Some people can d Do not have sex if drunk or have used illicit to reduce the probability of an attack. The treatment condoms only cover a limited area of the skin child transmission of HIV can be reduced by the prevent the virus from becoming resistant to the drugs.
For repeated episodes of thrush; it is important to
HIV to others in you are already HIV positive.
Prevention Directorate
get symptoms 4 to 5 days after meeting the virus.
5B, The Emporium, C. De Brocktorff Str., Msida MSD 1421 Malta.
used for facial herpes is recommended for ano-genital appropriate use of HIV treatment during pregnancy Social and emotional support through counselling and avoid certain triggers such as wearing of tight, synthetic Tel: 2326 6000,
and labour; by having a caeserian delivery if the psychotherapy are very important to help persons live It is also important that your current partner/s or past herpes. You can still take treatment even if you are clothing such as lycra, tights, leggings and jeans, using Common signs and symptoms may be: feeling Being diagnosed with Herpes can be a stressful period with HIV and make the best out of their lives. It is partners are informed of the infection so that they are pregnant. There is no need to treat every attack of perfumed soaps or genital deodorants and the repeated relatively unwell with fever, headaches, dull pain, in your life. Talk to your doctor and sexual health important to stay healthy by eating a balanced diet, given the opportunity to get tested and treated if found herpes as it will eventually clear on its own.
use of antibiotics. It is also important to have a well tingling or burning sensations in the back, legs, groin professionals in order to help you deal with the situation, exercise regularly, stop smoking and avoid excessive positive. The health professionals will help you lubricated vagina before sexual activity and to wipe the or genital area, painful, fluid filled blister in the ano- Ministry
Thus it is important to seek professional help as soon and assess whether it is necessary to inform your d Healthcare professionals may acquire HIV in the inform your partner/s if it is difficult to do it yourself.
genital area from front to back.There is no need to treat Information compiled by Ms Joanne Farrugia
for Health
genital area which can burst and become red as you experience any symptoms. The doctor can workplace, most often after being stuck with needles Your name and details will be kept confidential.
your partner if he/she has no complaints.
Design by Stefan Attard
Possible consequences in males
Treatment for Syphilis
Treatment for Ano-genital Warts
d Chlamydia also facilitates HIV transmission. The You may decide to leave your warts there. Warts may Avoiding sex until the warts are no longer visible in The first line treatment for syphilis is specific penicillin genital inflammation caused by Chlamydia can give clear up even without treatment. The treatment depends order may help to protect the treated area from friction.
inflammation of the prostrate together with pain, fever injections. The patient may experience flu-like rise to microscopic cuts in genital tissue creating reactions such as rigors, flushes, and fever due to on the number of warts present, where they are and Chlamydia is a Sexually Acquired Infection caused
and urgency to pass urine. Inflammation of the testicles Whilst at the clinic you would be offered a screen for potential sites where HIV can enter the body.
Gonorrhoea is a common curable Sexually Acquired
Syphilis is a potentially serious Sexually Acquired
the reaction of the antibiotic against the bacteria.
Ano-genital warts are a very common Sexually
what they look like. There is nothing that can be done Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not a Sexually Acquired
by bacteria. Chlamydia can be easily transmitted or epididymis may also happen and as a result the Infection. The vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, Infection caused by a bacterium. Syphilis can be all the common Sexually Acquired Infections. It is Predisolone tablets are given to prevent these Acquired Infection which are caused by a virus called against the virus itself. All that can be done is removal Infection. However women, who are sexually active, during vaginal, oral and anal sex and by sharing sex d In <1% of cases, Chlamydia can cause inflammation scrotum may swell and cause pain in the groin.
penis, anus, throat and eyes can be affected by this transmitted through vaginal, oral or anal sex, through also best to suggest to your partner/s to carry out a symptoms. If any of the above symptoms are the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). There are different of the warts. There are several treatment options; there have sex with other women or who have had a change toys. Chlamydia can also be transmitted from mother in the eyes and arthritis in the joints called Reiter’s bacterium. Gonorrhoea cannot be acquired from blood, through needle sharing or from mother to baby screen for Sexually Acquired Infections to avoid further experienced it is advisable to stay in bed, keep warm types of viruses which effect different parts of the body; are creams or solutions that can be applied on the of partner are more likely to suffer from BV.
to child during birth, thus causing infection in the swimming pools or toilet seats, contrary to many beliefs.
Testing for Gonorrhoea
though the placenta. It is treatable if caught in time.
however there are some that are commonly found in warts as directed by the doctor, cryotherapy which is a very cold spray made of liquid nitrogen, surgery under The tests consist of swab tests specific for gonorrhoea.
Some types of HPV may cause cancers of the cervix, In women BV usually causes an unusual discharge Testing for Chlamydia
Symptoms in women
The doctor can look at the discharge under the It is essential that one returns for follow-up visits as Symptoms in men and women
vulva, vagina, anus and penis. Thus, it is important with a characteristic smell of fish. Such a smell is more Symptoms caused by Chlamydia:
advised by the doctor especially if having HPV can be acquired during:
that women have regular smear tests as advised by evident after sex. In BV there is a surplus of other Urine samples can also be utilised for Chlamydia microscope and give a preliminary result. You will The infection in women is usually asymptomatic. Some Initially syphilis may present with one or more ulcers Careful: Creams can weaken latex condoms,
then be asked to call at the clinic for confirmatory their gynaecologist to detect the early, cellular changes kinds of bacteria in the vagina and less of the normal d unprotected sex including vaginal, anal and/or oral The majority of infected people do not experience testing in both females and males. The doctor may women may experience vaginal discharge which may which are usually 1-2 cms in size, hard and diaphragm and caps. Ask your doctor for advice.
results. The patient should not pass urine for 4 hours that may later progress into cancer. There are 2 bacteria (lactobacilli). A change in the pH of the vagina d skin to skin contact with warts even without any symptoms in the genital area. Symptoms are also take a swab from the cervix in women and send often have an unpleasant smell and a yellow/greenish not painful. Enlargement of the lymph glands prior to testing. The doctor will also carry out a complete vaccines that have been developed to protect against will be observed, becoming more alkaline.
less common in sites such as the rectum and the it to the lab for testing. If oral and/or anal sex has colour. Urination may also be painful or gives a burning in the vicinity is also observed. The ulcer Sometimes more than one treatment can be utilised at GU screen including an HIV test to exclude any other treatment is being given, it is advisable HPV; one protects against two viruses HPV 16 & 18 d sharing sex toys with partner/s who have HPV.
been carried out, the doctor will take samples from sensation. Rarely gonorrhoea may cause skin, joints, the same time. Some treatment regimes may cause (types that may cause cancer) and the other vaccine BV tends to occur more frequently in women who use the throat and the rectum. The doctor will also test this does not mean that the infection has pain, irritation or soreness. Whilst on treatment you protects against four viruses HPV 6,11, 16, 18 ( types strong soaps, bubble baths and vaginal deodorants Women may experience
you for other Sexually Acquired Infections as you can Ano-genital warts cannot be transmitted from hugging, Treatment for Gonorrhoea
infection. For patients that are allergic to penicillin, should not use perfumed bubbles baths or soaps as swimming in pools, from toilet seats and sharing of that cause cancer and genital warts). The vaccine is in the bath, utilise antiseptic liquids in the bath, douche, have more than one infection at a time.
Possible consequences in Women
on the lips, tongue, tonsils, in the rectum and rarely they may cause more irritation or soreness. Do not use best given to children as young as 11 years, before use strong detergents as washing up solutions d Bleeding in between periods or heavier periods Prompt treatment is needed to prevent harmful other sites. Following the initial symptoms one may any treatments that are bought over the counter for they have started sexual activity, to reach maximum If Gonorrhoea is left untreated, the infection may travel d Increased discharge and or changes in colour Treatment for Chlamydia
consequences. Gonorrhoea is resistant to most experience; a rash over the whole body especially on warts on the hands, finger and feet. In some people the palms and the soles of feet, flu– like symptoms Telling one’s partner about the
up to the uterus and the fallopian tubes and cause commonly used antibiotics, thus it is important to seek Signs and Symptoms
warts may disappear immediately, however, in others BV can be diagnosed by taking a sample of cells from severe inflammation. Such a condition is called Pelvic d Burning or discomfort whilst passing urine help at the GU clinic to receive the right like fever, headaches, fatigue, loss of hair, wart like infection
warts can be persistent for a long time. Do not attempt Warts may appear as bumps on the ano-genital area.
the vagina during an internal examination and specific antibiotics. Treatment will fail if you Inflammatory disease (PID). With PID women treatment to reduce resistance. It is advisable lesions especially around the anus or the vulva, to remove the warts yourself as you may cause more examining it under the microscope. The pH of the Men may experience
You may experience itching, irritation or bleeding from m a y e x p e r i e n c e a b d o m i n a l to abstain from sexual activity until fully treated Together with the doctor/ health advisor you have to eye/vision problems and renal problems.
damage. Do return to the clinic for follow-up work out with whom you had any kind of sexual warts. Warts may be tiny or bigger in size, may vagina can be measured by putting some of the pain/tenderness and fever. If the affected to avoid spreading of the infection or re- appointments so that the doctor can observe the contact. This is done so that the source of infection appear individually or in a group and some may discharge on a special paper. In some people BV infection. The doctor will re-examine the Possible consequences of
treatment’s success or failure and decide on future is detected. All possible contacts are to be tested and be smooth and flat or pink and cauliflower-like resolves on its own. Whilst testing for BV, the doctor with a condom) until 7 days after a single- patient after treatment to check whether the plans of action. You might get one or more in shape. You can have anal warts around the will offer a screen for all sexually acquired infection to treated accordingly. Sexual health professionals will syphilis
episodes of warts in your life. If you observe new anus even if you have never performed anal sex, exclude any other concurrent infections. Having BV multi-dose regimen. Do tell the doctor if you are possibility that the infection does not respond help inform your partner/s if it is difficult to do so warts this may be due to the original infection puts you at a greater risk of acquiring Pelvic resulting in infertility or increase in the The sites that are usually affected are the skin, the yourself. Your name and details will be kept as the virus can affect the whole ano-genital part.
Complications of Chlamydia:
pregnant as you will need different antibiotics.
to the treatment given. In that case other heart, the neurological system and the bones. It is or else a new infection from a new partner/s.
If you notice any changes in your ano-genital area Inflammatory Disease and HIV. Pregnant women with Antibiotics can stop the pill’s contraceptive effect.
confidential. Once syphilis is treated it does not mean Some warts may present in pregnancy or actually BV can either miscarry or else give birth prematurely possible to discover syphilis at this late stage as you that there is immunity from future infections. One can consult the doctor for advice. Usually the doctor can Chlamydia can cause long term problems if left advisable to use condoms with every sexual become more visible. If you think you are pregnant you or to low birth babies. Men do not get BV so they do may not have observed the symptoms mentioned re-acquire syphilis from another sexual partner.
examine the wart and confirm the infection. The doctor Telling one’s partner about the
encounter to prevent re-infection. Gonorrhoea is also should tell the doctor immediately as the cream is NOT
would need to examine the vagina and the anus infection
causes. A mother may transmit gonorrhoea to her treated immediately in pregnancy in order to prevent INDICATED in pregnancy. Treatment can be delayed
internally to see if there are any warts on the inside.
d Women can develop complications such as Pelvic child during childbirth. Gonorrhea can affect the infant’s until after delivery. Usually after the pregnancy is over Some women may need treatment such as antibiotics.
Inflammatory Disease (PID). Women most often It is important to inform the current partner/s about Testing for Syphilis
Some people may come into contact with the virus the warts disappear. There is no need for a caesarean Usually when such an antibiotic is used it is advisable experience abdominal pain, increased vaginal the infection as you can get infected again when Telling one’s partner about the
and never have the warts themselves. However they delivery unless the warts are so big they may cause to refrain from drinking alcohol and to eat a good meal discharge, irregular and painful periods and pain In order to diagnose syphilis, the doctor has to take having sex. Ex-partners should also be informed.
Symptoms in men
can still transmit the virus to their sexual partner/s. If problems during delivery. Passing on warts to your prior to taking the treatment to avoid an upset stomach.
during sexual intercourse. Such an infection can some blood. It is advisable that a complete GU screen Even though people do not have symptoms, they infection
warts show up this may happen weeks, months and baby during vaginal delivery is rare.
It is important to inform the doctor if you think you are also lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancies is carried out including an HIV test. One has to may still be infected and pass the infection to other Usually men experience symptoms soon after sexual It is also important that your current partner/s or past even years after having come into contact with the pregnant or if you are pregnant or breastfeeding as (where the baby develops outside the womb).
approximately wait 2 weeks for the result. If it is sexual partners. Harmful consequences can still be contact. The symptoms are pus-like urethral discharge partners are informed of the infection so that they are negative, therefore, it is essential that a second test virus. There is no way how you can detect from whom If you have warts there is a chance of passing the treatment can vary. Discuss methods of contraception caused even in the presence of no symptoms.
which is usually profuse, yellowish/greenish in colour d In men it can cause inflammation in the epididymis given the opportunity to get tested and treated if found is carried out after 3 months. It is also beneficial that infection to your partner/s. Use condoms wherever and or the testicles. Such inflammation can cause The sexual health professionals will help you inform and a burning sensation when passing urine. Some positive. The health professionals will help to inform a syphilis test is carried out during pregnancy since possible to reduce the contact of warts to normal skin.
your partners if you do not want do it yourself. Your men can be asymptomatic. With or without symptoms, your partner/s if it is difficult to do it yourself. Your syphilis can be passed to the baby. If the infection is name and details will be kept confidential.
one can still transmit the infection.
name and details will be kept confidential.
present in pregnancy, it can be treated immediately.


Visicitudes de la sanciÓn penal: “el acto” y "el sujeto del acto"

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