Superconducting and structural properties of sb doped yba2cu3o7 high-tc superconductors

The Nucleus
The Nucleus
A Quarterly Scientific Journal of Pakistan
The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005 : 113-122
Atomic Energy Commission
N C L E A M , I S S N 0 0 2 9 - 5 6 9 8
Pa kistan
Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan (Received February 28, 2005 and accepted in revised form October 12, 2005) In this article the historical-role of the Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS) as the key Human Resource Development (HRD) centre of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is described. This brief account covers a period of about 37 years, from 1967 to 2004 and goes on to describe the several transformations that a small and modest facility ‘Reactor School’ went through by first growing into the famous ‘Centre for Nuclear Studies (CNS)’ and later-on the present day PIEAS - as one of the most respected and prestigious degree awarding institute of the country. PIEAS was established to cater for the HRD needs of PAEC but now its scope has been broadened to a much wider extent to address the national needs. Presently PIEAS is imparting education to the postgraduate level in 7 different areas with a diversity that ranges from Nuclear Engineering to Nuclear Medicine, while several other graduate and postgraduate degrees are in the pipeline. The pioneering role of its founders and the award-winning contributions of PIEAS graduates are also presented. Keywords: Reactor school, CNS, PIEAS, Academic programmes, Research activities at PIEAS, Civil awards
Engineering, Medical Physics, and Information 1. Introduction
Technology ; (ii) very extensive Ph.D. programmes The Pakistan Institute of Engineering and in a number of disciplines; (iii) a bachelor Applied Sciences - more widely known as PIEAS programme in computer and information sciences today - is a multi-faceted, degree-awarding (BSCIS); and (iv) short training courses in university-level educational institution, with specialised fields. The academic programmes of PIEAS are complemented by an active R&D conducted at the highest level in certain programme that extends to working on industry- specialized disciplines. PIEAS is the premier related projects. The educational infra-structure educational wing of the Pakistan Atomic Energy that has been created for this purpose is now so Commission (PAEC), for which it has been the extensive that the Institute can aspire to pass on to major human resource development centre, the youth of the nation the expertise in a wide leading up to the highest technical level. The range of other fields, such as biomedical breadth of the courses offered and types of project engineering, mechanical engineering, laser work at PIEAS are a reflection of the complexity sciences, and computational physics, etc., that has and diversity of the programmes of the PAEC. been acquired over many decades by the PAEC. During recent years other technical and scientific Several of these programmes are in the pipeline, organizations of Pakistan, such as National and their implementation is currently at different Engineering and Scientific Commission stages, ranging from academic proposal to final (NESCOM), Dr A.Q Khan Research Laboratory approval from the Board of Governors of PIEAS. (KRL), Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), relevant sections of Pakistan Army and PIEAS: The Evolution of Reactor School
even the International Atomic Energy Agency to CNS and Beyond
(IAEA) are benefiting from the services of PIEAS The story of the development of PIEAS is one graduates. At this point in time, the academic and of organic growth. Over the years, it has training programme at PIEAS consists of four undergone several metamorphoses, each of which major components: (i) seven different Masters’ has radically changed many of its outward physical programmes (equivalent to M.Phil), viz. M.Sc.’s in characteristics, while maintaining a basic continuity Nuclear Engineering, Systems Engineering, in its academic traditions and fundamental Nuclear Medicine, Materials Engineering, Process Corresponding author : Human resource development at PIEAS - A brief historical account The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
objectives. It is an old institution with a new name. paramount importance, and therefore a separate building, located close to PINSTECH, was The seeds for this institution were sown many constructed, and the CNS shifted to it in 1978. years back in 1967, when a small training facility called the ‘Reactor School’ was established at the Almost a decade later, in its continuing Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology evolution, its affiliatory relationship with Quaid-i- (PINSTECH) to conduct some courses in nuclear Azam University underwent a major change in technology for the newly inducted engineers and scientists of the PAEC. The need for such a facility academic autonomy by giving it the status of an within Pakistan was being increasingly felt, ‘affiliated college’. At about the same time it was because the problems of exclusive dependence also accorded financial autonomy by the PAEC, upon foreign countries for all higher-level training and plans for a major expansion in its activities and education in this field had become all too were formulated. These were guided primarily by evident. PINSTECH was selected as the venue for the realisation that in the prevailing geo-political the training programme because the expertise and environment, the indigenisation of nuclear power experimental facilities required for such a must be accorded the highest priority. The specialised field were not available at any other expansion of training facilities at CNS was to be an institution in the country. By 1969, this training important component of this general objective. programme had acquired sufficient depth and breadth for Quaid-i-Azam University (then called With this greater freedom from the Quaid-i- the University of Islamabad), to accept it for the Azam University and its parent organization PAEC, award of a Master’s degree in nuclear technology, the-then CNS was able to introduce several new with Reactor School being formally affiliated to the degree programmes. These included M. Sc. University through its Physics Department. (Systems Engineering in 1988; M. Sc. (Nuclear Medicine) in 1989; and Ph.D.(Nuclear Engineering) To broaden participation and encourage greater in 1990. Later on, Ph.D. programmes in Systems competitiveness in this programme, a Fellowship Engineering and in Nuclear Medicine were programme was instituted in 1972, under which embarked upon. In 2000, BS (Computer and engineering graduates and M.Sc. degree holders Information Sciences) was started. In 2001, M. Sc. in the physical sciences were invited to compete (Medical Physics) was launched at PIEAS, and M. directly for the award of attractive fellowships for Sc. (Information Technology) was initiated at the the duration of the course. On successful Computer Training Centre (CTC). A variety of completion, they were to be inducted into PEAC as shorter courses also continued to be added to the regular employees. This pattern of selection for the fellowships purely on merit, through an intensely Engineering) and M. Sc. (Materials Engineering) competitive process involving written and oral examinations conduced on a national basis, has been successfully followed every year over the To accommodate the new laboratories, lecture- past quarter century. The almost palpable halls and other facilities which were necessitated degeneration in our social milieu, which is evident by this expansion programme, several new blocks all around us, has not been allowed to affect the of buildings had to be constructed and laboratory integrity of our fellowship award process. In this equipment acquired. This process is still continuing. At the same time, hostel space is also organisation, the PAEC, have been motivated by being steadily expanded: at present more than 300 our acute awareness that the technology that we are dealing with is the most demanding of enhancement in its infra-structure that created the disciplines, and one in which any lowering of capability for offering programmes in many different fields meant that the institution had outgrown its old name, and a new one was By 1976, we had greatly broadened the scope considered desirable. Therefore, the institution’s of our programme, and it was renamed M.Sc. name was changed to “Pakistan Institute of (Nuclear Engineering). The Reactor School itself Engineering & Applied Sciences” (PIEAS), in 1997. was upgraded administratively to the level of a In April 2000, PIEAS was granted a degree- Division of PINSTECH and was renamed the awarding university status by the Government of ‘Centre for Nuclear Studies (CNS)’. With its Pakistan to promote education and research at its expanding activities, additional space became of The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
Table 1. PIEAS - IMPORTANT LANDMARKS, 1967-2004. ‘Reactor School’ established at PINSTECH. Programme base broadened and renamed M. Sc. (Nuclear Engineering). ‘Reactor School’ renamed as ‘Centre for Nuclear Studies (CNS)’. National Physics Talent Contest launched. ‘CNS’ renamed ‘Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences ( PIEAS )’. First Ph.D. degree in Nuclear Engineering awarded at PIEAS. Federal Cabinet approved proposal for grant of degree-awarding status to PIEAS. PIEAS is granted a degree-awarding university status by the Government of Pakistan. BS in Computer and Information Sciences initiated. M. Sc. (Information Technology) initiated at CTC. Pakistani Team Participates in the International Physics Olympiad. M. Sc. (Materials Engineering) initiated . Pakistani team wins bronze medal and honourable mention certificates in 34th International Physics Olympiad. The ever-rising figure of PIEAS student body reaches 500. The faculty reaches 100 with more than 40 Ph.D. staff. The scholars pursuing Ph.D. programmes reaches 74. The story of PIEAS would remain incomplete to 2003 - who was selected to be its first Rector. without mentioning the vision and role of Dr. Inam- Dr. Muhammad Aslam succeeded Dr. Sadiq on his ur-Rehman, who is truly considered the institute- superannuation in 2003, and he is the present builder and father figure in its development. During the 38 year history of PIEAS only 4 people served landmarks in the history of PIEAS is provided in as head of the institute for different lengths of time. Mr. Muhammad Ahmed was the first in-charge of the Reactor School from 1967 to 1968. Dr. Inam’s The Academic Programmes at PIEAS
association with Reactor School and CNS spanned Today, the academic and training programmes the period from 1969 to 1997 as its head. Almost at PIEAS consist of four major components: (i) all the achievements of PIEAS are a direct or seven different Master’s programmes (equivalent indirect result of Dr. Inam’s efforts to continuously to M.Phil.); (ii) the very extensive Ph.D. programme improve the scope and standard of education and in many disciplines; (iii) the bachelor programme; research at PIEAS in order to fulfil his dream to and (iv) short training courses in specialised fields. make it one of the world’s renowned places of A brief account of each programme is presented learning (this legacy is still with us). So much so were his contributions that, upon his superannuation in 1997, a symposium was held with the title ‘Dr. Inam-ur-Rehman (AiK, S.I.): A The M.Sc. (Nuclear Engineering) programme is model teacher, an institution builder and a great by far the oldest at PIEAS. More than 873 human being: The proceedings of this symposium engineers/scientists have graduated from this programme over the past three decades, and development of PIEAS; for example, see articles today constitute the backbone of PAEC’s nuclear that are provided in references [1-4]. He is still power projects. A rather unusual feature of this associated with PIEAS as a ‘Scientist Emeritus’. programme is the immense diversity of fields The degree-awarding status to PIEAS was granted represented among its participants. They are taken during Dr. Abdullah Sadiq’s (S.I.) headship - 1997 from almost all the engineering disciplines from Human resource development at PIEAS - A brief historical account The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical, Metallurgy, etc., of visibility and acceptance in the international as well as several of the physical sciences, academic domain. This has been further reinforced in especially Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry. recent years by the work of some of our graduates This diversity is just one of the imperatives of the who are now engaged in Ph.D. studies in several multi-disciplinary nature of nuclear engineering institutions around the world. The International Atomic itself. It has always been a stimulating challenge Energy Agency (IAEA), recognizing the high for the faculty to begin with a group of people with academic standards of this programme, has included diverse backgrounds and travel with them towards it amongst those that it actively sponsors in the form the unified goal of understanding the complex of allocation of Fellowships for attending it. systems and processes involved in nuclear technology. The M.Sc. Medical Physics was initiated in 2001 with the view that PAEC at its different In all the projects and working plants of the medical centres, as well as organizations such as PAEC, and indeed in all modern industrial the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA), undertaking, computers, instrumentation and were in need of trained scientists with a degree in control systems play a central role. With the Medical Physics. This is a two-year, full-time, breathtaking rate of development in these fields, teaching and research programme with one year of their importance is increasing rapidly. To cater to course work and one year of clinical training and PAEC’s manpower requirements in this vital area, thesis project. During the first year, three an M.Sc. (Systems Engineering) programme was semesters are devoted to course work. Each initiated here in 1988. Ten batches have already semester has at least four courses of total 12 credit graduated from this programme and another two hours. Then, in the final year two semesters are devoted to on-the-job clinical training, a thesis research work, final defence and a final oral Medicine) programme in 1989 has been a major departure for the institution from its original base of The most outstanding achievements of PAEC engineering and physical sciences. We were are, indeed, in the field of Materials. In extractive constrained to do so because with the expanding metallurgy these range from prospecting to mining, network of nuclear medical centres in the country leading to extraction and eventually refining of there was an acute need for higher education in several metals. In physical metallurgy the expertise this area, and there appeared to be no other is in the fields of alloy development and structure- institution which could undertake this onerous task. property-processing optimization; ceramics In the design and implementation of this processing; research in high- and low-temperature programme we were generously helped by many materials; emerging technologies such as nano- of the nuclear medical centres. The PAEC also scale materials, and so on. In order to disseminate provided us with the resources to call upon the this rich experience, and with a view to further services of some of the leading international enhancing both the quality and the quantity of practitioners in this field to help conduct courses as research, an M.Sc. course in Materials Engineering well as participate in the evaluation of research theses. Since initiation, four batches have graduated from the M.Sc. (Nuclear Medicine) programme, and This is a five-semester (24 months) full-time the fifth is currently underway. The course has now programme covering various aspects of Materials matured as a nationally and internationally recognized Engineering. It is conducted by the Department of programme, having been approved by the Pakistan Chemical and Materials Engineering in PIEAS. The Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) as a post- emphasis is on the practical applications of graduate qualification equivalent to an ‘Intermediate materials science and engineering in order to Diploma’, that is equivalent to an M.Phil. Degree for address the national engineering needs. Areas of the purpose of registration in the subsequent Ph.D. study include materials characterization; alloy programme - which has also been initiated here. development and phase control; composites; Because of the very close association of several of polymeric and ceramic materials and their the leading international experts in the field with its synthesis; material production processes, etc. design and implementation, it has had a high degree The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
In the formulation and implementation of our This five-semester (24 months) full-time programme covers the analysis and design, primarily by two basic objectives. One is the operation and control considerations of process systems that are generally dealt with in the field of requirements of the PAEC; and the other is the Chemical Engineering. It therefore has a technical commitment to the maintenance of academic content relevant to the needs of the modern standards at levels comparable to the best in the Chemical Engineering profession, and closely world. This involves a multi-pronged approach, of reflects the skills and capabilities of our current which one of the most important aspects is faculty. The programme has been arranged into curriculum development. To ensure this, we have three related yet independent streams: (i) Process an ongoing process through which syllabi are kept Modelling and Control; (ii) Chemical and Mineral under constant review, so that changes occurring Processing; and (iii) Environmental Engineering, by in the field are rapidly incorporated into our providing a list of electives that allow students to courses of studies. Strengthening of the faculty place emphasis on a particular aspect of the and fostering their continuing professional growth curriculum. The PIEAS’s Department of Chemical is another vital element in this process. The and Materials Engineering hosts the programme. development and maintenance of laboratories in M.Sc. Process Engineering was started in 2002, the wide variety of highly sophisticated disciplines and since its inception the demand for Process has been a very difficult task, but a necessary one. Engineering graduates is ever-increasing and other strategic organizations are sending their laboratories in different areas for conducting students’ experiments as well as for R&D work. Graduates and registered students of the above M.Sc. Information Technology was started at an academic programmes are provided in Table 2. affiliate centre of PIEAS, namely Computer Training Centre, in 2001. The term "informatique" Programme
was coined by the French in the early 1960s, and referred to the application of computing to the relatively recently here (see Table 3), but is now communication processes used by scientists in receiving much more attention as the avenues for education at the highest level in technical fields are themselves. The domain represented by this new being increasingly blocked by the industrialised term was ultimately viewed by the French and countries. Four Ph.D. degrees in Nuclear Engineering have already been awarded, and currently there are 73 doctoral candidates subsequently, the term has represented computer registered in different departments of PIEAS. In the science. The Russians, however, embraced the future, we expect to see a substantial increase in term "informatika", and took a broader perspective. this number. During past few months, and till end They believed that this emerging field was, in fact, of 2005, this number has exceeded well over 100 a social science, concerning itself with the use of registerd Ph. D. scholars. The active research technology in various communities (e.g. Scientific) areas for doctoral programme are provided in and the interaction of technology and human/ organizational structures. In the United States, it took on a broad perspective and included “the 5. The B.S. Programme (Equivalent to
cognitive, information- processing and communi- B.Sc. Eng.)
cation tasks of industrial practice, education and research, including information science, and the 5.1 Bachelor of Science in Computer and technology to support these tasks." Informatics incorporates at least three domains: (1) technology and its application, (2) information organization (Computer and Information Sciences), is designed and structure, and (3) human behaviour (especially to provide essential knowledge and skills in communication). The intersection of these three computer science and its applications. Students domains attracts special attention in this field. are encouraged to develop their expertise in at least one of the following areas of specialization: Human resource development at PIEAS - A brief historical account The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
Table 2: The Student Body of Different M.Sc. Programmes M. Sc. Level Course (Equivalent to M. Phil.) Table 3: Scholars of Different Ph. D. Programmes Software Engineering, Computer Networks, year undergraduate degree. Furthermore, a Databases and Information Retrieval, Data student is required to take a minimum of 9 credit hour courses and a maximum of 22 credit hour Computations, and Artificial Intelligence. The courses in a semester, with the approval of the student body of BSCIS programme is shown in Head of Department. The minimum duration of such programmes is 8 semesters (48 months) and the maximum is 11 semesters (66 months). Normally, 15 credit hour courses and laboratory In order to be eligible for admission in any four- work are offered in each of the eight semesters. year undergraduate degree programme, first The number of total student body of PIEAS has division is required in the preceding academic been increasing at a rapid pace since it was career. A person holding Higher Secondary School granted a degree-awarding status. Figure 1 shows Certificate from a Pakistani Intermediate and Secondary Education Board or an equivalent such as A-Level from any other recognized university is 6. Short Training Courses in Specialised
undergraduate programme of study provided s/he meets the prerequisite course requirements of the Besides the regular academic programmes, department where s/he is seeking admission. PIEAS has conducted a large number of courses on various specialised topics whenever a need for it is perceived within the PAEC. The length of these courses has varied from 2 to 18 months, According to rules, a student needs to complete and the areas covered have included reactor a minimum of 120 credit hours to qualify for a four- The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
Table 4. Doctoral Programmes (Active Research Areas) Key element of a viable energy policy for Pakistan Design and development of portable radiation monitors Modelling of nonlinear material damage processes Simulation of rigid body penetration in plates Numerical techniques for neutron spectrum adjustment of MTRs Modelling and analysis of fuel gas treatment from fossil fuel based combustion Synthesis of metal and metal oxide nano-particles Computational modelling of natural convection heat transfer from an assembly of vertical cylinders Processing of advanced materials through electrometallurgy by using unconventional electrolytes Development of polyimide based nano-composite materials via sol-gel techniques Analysis of inhomogeneous deformation under compressive loading Interoperability of Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited’s equipment for central monitoring and diagnostics Design and development of a portable mobile robot Role of nuclear medicine for detection of patient foramen ovale Role of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin in the detection of endocardities Change of diastolic function parameters between stress and rest gated myocardial perfusion SPECT studies: correlation with perfusion parameters Evaluation of UBI- (29-41) for imaging of bacterial infection in human subjects Laser-tissue interaction and wave propagation in random media Modelling and simulation of corrosion product activity in primary circuits of Pressurized Water Reactors under flow rate perturbations Modelling of corrosion product activity in primary circuits of Pressurized Water Reactors under power perturbations Application of CR-39 detector in Uranium exploration Radon transport studies using solid state nuclear track detectors Measurement of radon activity concentration in dwellings in different parts of Pakistan Monte Carlo simulation of fission product release rates from fuel to primary coolants of Pressurized Water Reactors Ultra fast kinetic and spectroscopic studies of biomedical samples Study of physical mechanisms of Regenerative Sooting Discharges Reconstruction of 3D images from 2D images by shape from shading techniques Automatic evaluation of endothelial function using vascular ultrasound images Development of algorithms and computerized grammar of Urdu for the machine translation New neural network-based architectures for non-linear time series prediction Filtered and transformation based image processing techniques Development of parallel numerical algorithms Human resource development at PIEAS - A brief historical account The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
Table 5. The Student Body of BSCIS Programme Bachelor of Science (Computer and Information Sciences) Figure 1. The year-wise rise of student body at PIEAS supervision and operation, health physics, medical employees of the PAEC as well as and other physics, laser technology, vacuum technology, computer applications and advanced reactor safety. Scientists and engineers who are directly Infrastructure
inducted into the PAEC generally require an PIEAS is among a congregation of R&D introduction to issues and techniques pertaining to establishments of the PAEC located at Nilore, nuclear power. During the past few years, PIEAS Islamabad. It has a large campus, spread over 150 has conducted a number of short courses for these acres of land with academic blocks, laboratories, purposes that are called the ‘Nuclear Orientation workshops, a computer centre, a library, an Programme’. For technicians and scientific auditorium, student hostels, a cafeteria, sports assistants, the ‘Basic Nuclear Orientation Course’ facilities and houses for faculty and staff. Table 6 has been conducted here on a regular basis for provides the main features of the PIEAS campus. many years now, and it has played an important role in increasing the efficiency and versatility of It will be evident from all of the above that personnel at that level. More recently, short PIEAS is engaged in manpower development courses have been given a modular format and are now being offered for a wider variety of directions, but the major thrust of our efforts is participants, even outside the PAEC. For example, directed towards postgraduate academic work. At our expertise in Computer Aided Design/Computer this level, research and development activities Aided Manufacture is now being disseminated in become an integral part of the educational modular courses being frequently offered to the process. We therefore try to ensure that all of our Masters’ graduates get some experience of The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
Location: : Nilore, Islamabad (25 km on Lehtrar road due south-east of the Federal Capital) Academic Buildings: 8 blocks with a total covered area of about 1,60,000 sq. ft. housing: • 11 lecture halls • 4 conference rooms • Separate boys and girls accommodation blocks • 4 hostel blocks (200 rooms) for single students & 10 two-bedroom houses • A new hostel accommodation is for 100 students with double occupancy • Computers (300+) & workstations (7) on the campus and in the hostels are connected through local area network using • Scanners, printers, plotters, etc. • Several multimedia and overhead projectors • PIEAS Library with more than 10,000 books • Access to PINSTECH library which is the national resource centre for physical sciences with more than: • 32,000 books & 120 current journals • 50,000 back issues of journals • 1,000,000 technical reports independent work on an R & D project relevant to At PIEAS, traditionally, the focus has been on their background and interests. Faculty members education, training and academic R&D. But, participate actively in the supervision of this work, recently, efforts have also been made to apply the besides contributing to other projects. To facilitate expertise available here to industrial R&D. In this collaboration amongst faculty members on R & D context, several products of industrial use, such as work, a number of technical groups have been PC-controlled drilling machines, PC-controlled formed within PIEAS, which cover almost the milling machines, and robotic manipulators have whole spectrum of disciplines involved in nuclear energy applications. Faculty members are also educational purposes such as PC-controlled multi- encouraged to undertake collaborative work with variable tanks (containers holding different water other PAEC establishments, as well as with other level) have also been supplied to various universities and R & D organizations at home and abroad. A number of such efforts are underway, and fruitful results have been obtained from many PIEAS has had interactions of several kinds of them. PIEAS faculty members have published internationally. A large number of students from more than 400 papers in international journals. A Muslim countries have benefited from the large part of the R&D work has also been reported academic offerings here, and many of them are in the hundreds of Masters’ dissertations and now playing a significant role in this field in their technical reports that are regularly prepared. own homelands. For some of our courses we have Human resource development at PIEAS - A brief historical account The Nucleus, 42 (1-2) 2005
national civil honours conferred on PIEAS Table 7. List of civil awards obtained by PIEAS graduates 8. Conclusion
Having undergone an intensive development programme over the last three decades, PIEAS now has a very sound academic infrastructure that can be compared with that in any Pakistani used the services of foreign experts, particularly in university. This consists of a highly qualified newly developed areas. Of course, most of our faculty; laboratory facilities in many different areas; faculty members have had extensive exposure to a sophisticated computer centre, library and the universities and research laboratories in workshops; a large number of lecture halls; hostels industrialized countries. This international and recreational facilities for students; and an interaction has greatly helped in ensuring the administrative structure with extensive experience maintenance of high standards at the institution. of dealing with all academic requirements. Thus, it possesses all the ingredients required for a Being part of an institution of higher learning, University-level institution. In fact, the quality of we at PIEAS, besides responding to the current infrastructure at PIEAS is in many ways unique needs of the PAEC, must also keep our antennas amongst Pakistani educational institutions. This tuned to the future. Any vibrations that we receive institution is now fully geared to provide from that realm must be quickly amplified, educational services on a wide scale. It represents analysed, interpreted, and presented in a a large reservoir of experience and expertise that perceptible format. So, a part of our energies has has the potential to make substantial contributions to be devoted to the development of fields which to national development. Its reorganisation, may not appear to be in the mainstream of converting it into a degree-awarding institution, has technology in Pakistan today, but which, in our enabled it to function at an optimal efficiency and estimation, may become indispensable for our to utilise more fully its full potential for contributing technological development tomorrow. It is with this to the national needs in higher education. end in view that we also have an ongoing effort for the preparation of proposals for new academic References
programmes to fulfil the likely needs of the future. M. Ahmad, ‘Development of Manpower and Planning of Nuclear Power in Pakistan’, Proc. From time to time PIEAS faculty members have been awarded national and international awards. Institution-Builder and a Great Human Being, Professor Raziuddin Siddiqui Gold Medal and Cash Prize of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences I.H. Qureshi, ‘My Association with Dr Inam’, for the year 2001 for his outstanding research contributions in Physics. Dr Nasir Ahmed was A.T.Fatimi, ‘Dr Inam and CNS’, ibid p 50-51 awarded, the best university teacher award by the UGC (now HEC) in 2002 for his contributions in [4] I. Ahmad, ‘Dr Inam-ur-Rehman: Some teaching and research. A list of some other


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