Microsoft word - smoking fact sheet.doc
Smoking 101 Fact Sheet M ay 2007
Cigarette smoking has been identified as the most important source of
pr eventable morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Smoking-
re lated diseases claim an estimated 438,000 American lives each year,
in cluding those affected indirectly, such as babies born prematurely d
ue to prenatal maternal smoking and victims of "secondhand"
exposure to tobacco's carcinogens. Smoking costs the United States
over $167 billion each year in health-care costs including $92 billion in
m ortality-related productivity loses and $75 billion in direct medical
ex penditures or an average of $3,702 per adult smoker.1
• Cigarette smoke contains over 4,800 chemicals, 69 of which are
known to cause cancer. Smoking is directly responsible for
approximately 90 percent of lung cancer deaths and
approximately 80-90 percent of COPD (emphysema and chronic
• About 8.6 million people in the U.S. have at least one serious
illness caused by smoking. That means that for every person who
dies of a smoking-related disease, there are 20 more people who
suffer from at least one serious illness associated with smoking.3
• Among current smokers, chronic lung disease accounts for 73
percent of smoking-related conditions. Even among smokers who
have quit chronic lung disease accounts for 50 percent of
• Smoking is also a major factor in coronary heart disease and
stroke; may be causally related to malignancies in other parts of the body; and has been linked to a variety of other conditions
and disorders, including slowed healing of wounds, infertility, and peptic ulcer disease. For the first time, the Surgeon General includes pneumonia in the list of diseases caused by smoking.5
• Smoking in pregnancy accounts for an estimated 20 to 30
percent of low-birth weight babies, up to 14 percent of preterm deliveries, and some 10 percent of all infant deaths. Even apparently healthy, full-term babies of smokers have been found
to be born with narrowed airways and curtailed lung function.6
• Only about 30 percent of women who smoke stop smoking when
they find out they are pregnant; the proportion of quitters is highest
among married women and women with higher levels of
education.7 Smoking during pregnancy declined in 2004 to 10.2
percent of women giving birth, down 42 percent from 1990.8
• Neonatal health-care costs attributable to maternal smoking in the
U.S. have been estimated at $366 million per year, or $704 per maternal smoker.9
• Smoking by parents is also associated with a wide range of adverse
effects in their children, including exacerbation of asthma, increased
frequency of colds and ear infections, and sudden infant death
syndrome. Secondhand smoke causes an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 cases of lower respiratory tract infections in children less than 18 months of age, resulting in 7,500 to 15,000 annual hospitalizations.10
• In 2005, an estimated 45.1 million, or 21.0 percent of, adults were
current smokers. The annual prevalence of smoking has declined 40
percent between 1965 and 1990, but has been unchanged virtually
• Males tend to have significantly higher rates of smoking prevalence
than females. In 2005, 23.9 percent of males currently smoked
• Prevalence of current smoking in 2005 was highest among Native
American Indians/Alaska Natives (32.0%), intermediate among non- Hispanic whites (21.9%), and non-Hispanic blacks (21.5%), and lowest among Hispanics (16.2%) and Asians and Pacific Islanders (13.3%).13
• As smoking declines among the White non-Hispanic population,
tobacco companies have targeted both African Americans and
Hispanics with intensive merchandising, which includes billboards, advertising in media targeted to those communities, and sponsorship of civic groups and athletic, cultural, and entertainment events. In 2003, total advertising and promotion by the five major
tobacco companies was the highest ever reported at $15.15 billion.14
• Tobacco advertising also plays an important role in encouraging
young people to begin a lifelong addiction to smoking before they
are old enough to fully understand its long-term health risk. Approximately 90 percent of smokers begin smoking before the age
• In 2005, 23 percent of high school students were current
smokers.16 Over 8 percent of middle school students were current smokers in 2004.17
• Secondhand smoke involuntarily inhaled by nonsmokers from other
people's cigarettes is classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency as a known human (Group A) carcinogen, responsible for
approximately 3,400 lung cancer deaths and 46,000 (ranging
22,700-69,600) heart disease deaths in adult nonsmokers annually in United States.18
• Workplaces nationwide are going smoke-free to provide clean indoor
air and protect employees from the life-threatening effects of secondhand smoke. Nearly 70 percent of the U.S. workforce worked
under a smoke free policy in 1999, but the percentage of workers
protected varies by state, ranging from a high of 83.9 percent in
Utah and 81.2 percent in Maryland to 48.7% in Nevada.19
• Employers have a legal right to restrict smoking in the workplace, or
implement a totally smoke-free workplace policy. Exceptions may arise in the case of collective bargaining agreements with unions.
• Nicotine is an addictive drug, which when inhaled in cigarette smoke
reaches the brain faster than drugs that enter the body
intravenously. Smokers not only become physically addicted to
nicotine; they also link smoking with many social activities, making smoking a difficult habit to break.20
• In 2005, an estimated 46.1 million adults were former smokers. Of
the current 45.1 million smokers, 42.5 percent of current smokers
had stopped smoking at least 1 day in the preceding year because
they were trying to quit smoking completely.21
• Nicotine replacement products can help relieve withdrawal
symptoms people experience when they quit smoking. Nicotine
patches, nicotine gum and nicotine lozenges are available over-the-
counter, and a nicotine nasal spray and inhaler are currently
In addition, a doctor can prescribe non nicotine pills such as Zyban and Chantix to help smokers quit. Nicotine replacement therapies are helpful in quitting when combined with a behavior change program such as the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking (FFS), which addresses psychological and
behavioral addictions to smoking and strategies for coping with urges to smoke. For more information on smoking, please review the Tobacco Use Morbidity and Mortality Trend Report in the Data and Statistics section of our website at www.lungusa.org or call the American Lung Association at
1-800-LUNG-USA (1-800-586-4872). Sources:
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of
Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses—United States, 1997–2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report [serial online]. 2005;54:625-628 [cited 2007 Mar 13]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5425a1.htm.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and
Health Promotion. Tobacco Information and Prevention Source (TIPS). Tobacco Use in the United States. January 27, 2004.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette Smoking Attributable Morbidity – U.S., 2000.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2003 Sept; 52(35): 842-844.
4. Ibid. 5. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the
6. U.S Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon
7. Martin J, Hamilton B, Sutton P, Ventura S, Menacker, F. and Munson M. Division of Vital
Statistics Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Vital Statistics Reports. Births Final Data for 2003. Vol. 54(2), September 2005. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_02.pdf. Accessed on 3/15/07.
8. National Vital Statistic Reports. Births: Final Data for 2004. Vol. 55, No. 1, September 2006. 9. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. State Estimates of Neonatal Health-Care Costs Associated
with Maternal Smoking – U.S., 1996. Vol. 53, No. 39, October 8, 2004.
10. California Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental
11. National Health Interview Survey. Vital and Health Statistics: Summary Health Statistics
for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2005. Series 10, No. 232, Oct. 4, 2006.
12. Ibid. 13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
(MMWR) Tobacco Use among Adults, Vol. 55 (42); 1145-1148, Oct. 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5542a1.htm. Accessed on 4/19/07.
14. Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report for 2003. Issued August 2005. Available at:
http://www.ftc.gov/reports/cigarette05/050809cigrpt.pdf. Accessed on 4/30/07.
15. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing Tobacco Use among Young
People: A Report of the Surgeon General, 1994.
16. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States,
2005. Vol. 55(SS05);1-108(pg.14). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505al. Accessed on 4/30/07.
17. National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2000-2005 and CDC. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly
Report. Tobacco Use, Access and Exposure in Media Among Middle School and High School Students, United States 2004. Vol. 54, No. 12;297-301, April 2005. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5526a2.htm. Accessed on 4/30/07.
18. California Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental
Tobacco Smoke. June 2005. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/smokefree/healtheffects.html. Accessed on 4/30/07.
19. Shopland DR, Gerlach KK, Burns DM, Hartman AM, Gibson JT. State-Specific Trends in
Smokefree Workplace Policy Coverage: the Current Population Tobacco Use Supplement, 1993 to 1999. J Occup Environ Med 2001; 43:680-686.
20. National Institute of Drug Abuse. Research Report on Nicotine: Addiction, August 2001. 21. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Tobacco Use Among Adults—United States, 2005.
Vol. 55. No. 42, October 2005. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5542a1.htm. Accessed on 4/19/07.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: A
BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA CHEMICAL REFERENCE SUBSTANCE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET The substance to which this Safety Data Sheet relates is supplied exclusively as a British Pharmacopoeia Chemical Reference Substance (BPCRS) for chemical test and assay purposes. It is not intended to be used for any other purpose and is not for human consumption . The BPCRS is supplied in accordance
Speciale gast tijdens IDFA: Jonathan Harris Jonathan Harris (1979) is kunstenaar en computer engineer die creëerde hij met Cowbird een gemeenschap van verhalenvertel-in zijn werk de relatie tussen mens en technologie onderzoekt. lers, waarmee hij werkt aan een “bibliotheek van menselijke Hiervoor combineert hij elementen uit de computerwetenschap, ervaringen”. Harris zal op uitnod